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Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 315-320

Published online December 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.315

© The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service

양돈장 사료의 곰팡이독소 오염률 조사

신현숙1ㆍ김근호1ㆍ서진성1ㆍ손영민1ㆍ박지용2ㆍ윤순식1ㆍ정병열1*

농림축산검역본부 세균질병과1, (주)코브콕2

Received: September 10, 2021; Revised: December 10, 2021; Accepted: December 10, 2021

Prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in pig feedstuffs

Hyun Sook Shin 1, Keun-Ho Kim 1, Jin Sung Seo 1, Young Min Son 1, Jiyong Park 2, Soon Seek Yoon 1, Byeong Yeal Jung 1*

1Bacterial Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
2Korea Veterinary Consulting Group, Jinju 52801, Korea

Correspondence to : Byeong Yeal Jung
E-mail: jungby@korea.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3229-8932

Received: September 10, 2021; Revised: December 10, 2021; Accepted: December 10, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

To analyze prevalence of mycotoxins, a total of 74 feedstuff samples were collected from silos (n=37) and hoppers (n=37) in nine pig farms. Six mycotoxins were tested with commercialized ELISA kits. All samples were contaminated with four or more mycotoxins. Zearalenone was detected in all of the tested samples. Ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol and H-2/HT-2 toxin were detected in more than 90% of the samples. And also, fumonisin was positive in 89.2% of the samples from the silos, 75.2% from the hoppers, respectively. On the other hand, aflatoxin was detected in about 40% of the samples. When the behavior of lactating sows was observed, possible mycotoxicosis was suspected. It was confirmed that their feedstuffs were contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins such as ochratoxin and T-2/HT-2 toxin. After cleaning the feedline, the clinical symptoms in sows suspected with mycotoxicosis were disappeared. Although mycotoxin concentration in most of the feedstuffs was below the acceptance level, these data indicate that what are required is more monitoring and continuous management for mycotoxins in pig feedstuffs.

Keywords Mycotoxin, Feedstuff, Pig, ELISA

  1. 국립농업과학원. 2020. 잡곡의 주요 곰팡이독소와 독성곰팡이 오염실태 및 붉은곰팡이의 니발레놀 생성요인 구명 연구. 농업과학기반기술연구보고서.
  2. 국립축산과학원. 2020. 2020 고온기 가축피해예방 및 축사환경관리 핵심기술.
  3. 농림축산식품부. 2019. 사료 등의 기준 및 규격. 농림축산식품부고시 제2019-58호.
  4. 농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원. 2017. 농산물 중 주요 곰팡이독소 오염실태 조사 및 발생생태 연구.
  5. 농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원. 2015. 가축 사료 내 곰팡이독소 발생 현황 조사 및 독소 저감기술 활용 연구. 친환경안전축산물생산기술사업 연구보고서.
  6. 농촌진흥청. 2017. 국내외 사료 안전관리체계 개선 연구. 친환경안전축산물생산기술사업 연구보고서.
  7. 대한한돈협회. 2021. 한돈협, 양돈용 배합사료 곰팡이독소 모니터링 발표. 월간한돈 1월호: 267-269.
  8. 한국농촌경제연구원. 2018. 최근 기상이변에 따른 국제곡물 수급 및 가격의 영향과 전망.
  9. 홍현진. 2013. 곰팡이독소에 대한 이해와 2012년 주요 원료의 곰팡이독소 분석현황. 한국사료협회 격월간 사료 9월10월: 54-61.
  10. Alshannaq A, Yu JH. 2017. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14: 632.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Castellari CC, Cendoya MG, Marcos Valle FJ, Barrera V, Pacin AM. 2015. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors associated with mycotoxigenic fungi populations of maize grains (Zea mays L.) stored in silobags in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 47: 350-359.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Chaytor AC, Hansen JA, van Heugten E, See MT, Kim SW. 2011. Occurrence and decontamination of mycotoxins in swine feed. Anim Biosci 24: 723-738.
    CrossRef
  13. Chiotta ML, Fumero MV, Cendoya E, Palazzini JM, Alaniz-Zanon MS, Ramirez ML, Chulze SN. 2020. Toxigenic fungal species and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in crops harvested in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 52: 339-347.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Dabrowski M, Obremski K, Gajecka M, Gajecki MT, Zielonka L. 2016. Changes in the subpopulations of porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by exposure to low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Molecules 21: 557.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Elliott CT, Connolly L, Kolawole O. 2020. Potential adverse effects on animal health and performance caused by the addition of mineral adsorbents to feeds to reduce mycotoxin exposure. Mycotoxin Res 36: 115-126.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Gruber-Dorninger C, Jenkins T, Schatzmayr G. 2019. Global mycotoxin occurrence in feed: a ten-year survey. Toxins 11: 375.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. IARC. 2021. Agent classified by the IARC Monographs. https://monographs.iarc.who.int/agents-classified-by-the-iarc.
  18. Kim DH, Kim HJ, Jang HS, Kim YM, Choi HB, Ahn JS. 2011. Simultaneous analysis and survey for contamination of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in feed. J Fd Hyg Safety 26: 1-11.
  19. Moon SH, Koh SE, Oh Y, Cho HS. 2020. Exposure to low concentrations of mycotoxins triggers unique responses from the pig gut microbiome. Korean J Vet Serv. 43: 39-44.
  20. Nogueira MS, Decundo J, Martinez M, Dieguez SN, Moreyra F, Moreno MV, Stenglein SA. 2018. Natural contamination with mycotoxins produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in malting barley in Argentina. Toxins 10: 78.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Pereyra CM, Cavaglieri LR, Chiacchiera SM, Dalcero AM. 2011. Mycobiota and mycotoxins contamination in raw materials and finished feed intended for fattening pigs production in eastern Argentina. Vet Res Commun 35: 367-379.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Pleadin J, Zadravec M, Perši N, Vulic A, Jaki V, Mitak M. 2012. Mould and mycotoxin contamination of pig feed in northwest Croatia. Mycotoxin Res 28: 157-162.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Shi H, Li S, Bai Y, Prates LL, Lei Y, Yu P. 2018. Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in China: occurrence, detection techniques, toxicological effects and advances in mitigation technologies. Food Control 91: 202-215.
    CrossRef
  24. Song YK, Jung BY, Choi JS, Moon OK, Lee SH, Chung DH, PAK SI, Park CK. 2010. Survey on aflatoxins in pig feeds in Korean pig farms. Kor J Vet Publ Hlth. 34: 237-243.
  25. Whitlow LW, Hagler WM Jr, Diaz DE. 2020. Mycotoxins in feeds. Feedstuffs 74-84.
  26. Yang CW, Song GH, Lim WS. 2020. Effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feed on farm animals. J Hazard Mater 389: 122087.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Short Communication

Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 315-320

Published online December 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.315

Copyright © The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service.

양돈장 사료의 곰팡이독소 오염률 조사

신현숙1ㆍ김근호1ㆍ서진성1ㆍ손영민1ㆍ박지용2ㆍ윤순식1ㆍ정병열1*

농림축산검역본부 세균질병과1, (주)코브콕2

Received: September 10, 2021; Revised: December 10, 2021; Accepted: December 10, 2021

Prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in pig feedstuffs

Hyun Sook Shin 1, Keun-Ho Kim 1, Jin Sung Seo 1, Young Min Son 1, Jiyong Park 2, Soon Seek Yoon 1, Byeong Yeal Jung 1*

1Bacterial Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
2Korea Veterinary Consulting Group, Jinju 52801, Korea

Correspondence to:Byeong Yeal Jung
E-mail: jungby@korea.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3229-8932

Received: September 10, 2021; Revised: December 10, 2021; Accepted: December 10, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To analyze prevalence of mycotoxins, a total of 74 feedstuff samples were collected from silos (n=37) and hoppers (n=37) in nine pig farms. Six mycotoxins were tested with commercialized ELISA kits. All samples were contaminated with four or more mycotoxins. Zearalenone was detected in all of the tested samples. Ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol and H-2/HT-2 toxin were detected in more than 90% of the samples. And also, fumonisin was positive in 89.2% of the samples from the silos, 75.2% from the hoppers, respectively. On the other hand, aflatoxin was detected in about 40% of the samples. When the behavior of lactating sows was observed, possible mycotoxicosis was suspected. It was confirmed that their feedstuffs were contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins such as ochratoxin and T-2/HT-2 toxin. After cleaning the feedline, the clinical symptoms in sows suspected with mycotoxicosis were disappeared. Although mycotoxin concentration in most of the feedstuffs was below the acceptance level, these data indicate that what are required is more monitoring and continuous management for mycotoxins in pig feedstuffs.

Keywords: Mycotoxin, Feedstuff, Pig, ELISA

References

  1. 국립농업과학원. 2020. 잡곡의 주요 곰팡이독소와 독성곰팡이 오염실태 및 붉은곰팡이의 니발레놀 생성요인 구명 연구. 농업과학기반기술연구보고서.
  2. 국립축산과학원. 2020. 2020 고온기 가축피해예방 및 축사환경관리 핵심기술.
  3. 농림축산식품부. 2019. 사료 등의 기준 및 규격. 농림축산식품부고시 제2019-58호.
  4. 농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원. 2017. 농산물 중 주요 곰팡이독소 오염실태 조사 및 발생생태 연구.
  5. 농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원. 2015. 가축 사료 내 곰팡이독소 발생 현황 조사 및 독소 저감기술 활용 연구. 친환경안전축산물생산기술사업 연구보고서.
  6. 농촌진흥청. 2017. 국내외 사료 안전관리체계 개선 연구. 친환경안전축산물생산기술사업 연구보고서.
  7. 대한한돈협회. 2021. 한돈협, 양돈용 배합사료 곰팡이독소 모니터링 발표. 월간한돈 1월호: 267-269.
  8. 한국농촌경제연구원. 2018. 최근 기상이변에 따른 국제곡물 수급 및 가격의 영향과 전망.
  9. 홍현진. 2013. 곰팡이독소에 대한 이해와 2012년 주요 원료의 곰팡이독소 분석현황. 한국사료협회 격월간 사료 9월10월: 54-61.
  10. Alshannaq A, Yu JH. 2017. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14: 632.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Castellari CC, Cendoya MG, Marcos Valle FJ, Barrera V, Pacin AM. 2015. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors associated with mycotoxigenic fungi populations of maize grains (Zea mays L.) stored in silobags in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 47: 350-359.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Chaytor AC, Hansen JA, van Heugten E, See MT, Kim SW. 2011. Occurrence and decontamination of mycotoxins in swine feed. Anim Biosci 24: 723-738.
    CrossRef
  13. Chiotta ML, Fumero MV, Cendoya E, Palazzini JM, Alaniz-Zanon MS, Ramirez ML, Chulze SN. 2020. Toxigenic fungal species and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in crops harvested in Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 52: 339-347.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Dabrowski M, Obremski K, Gajecka M, Gajecki MT, Zielonka L. 2016. Changes in the subpopulations of porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by exposure to low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Molecules 21: 557.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Elliott CT, Connolly L, Kolawole O. 2020. Potential adverse effects on animal health and performance caused by the addition of mineral adsorbents to feeds to reduce mycotoxin exposure. Mycotoxin Res 36: 115-126.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Gruber-Dorninger C, Jenkins T, Schatzmayr G. 2019. Global mycotoxin occurrence in feed: a ten-year survey. Toxins 11: 375.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. IARC. 2021. Agent classified by the IARC Monographs. https://monographs.iarc.who.int/agents-classified-by-the-iarc.
  18. Kim DH, Kim HJ, Jang HS, Kim YM, Choi HB, Ahn JS. 2011. Simultaneous analysis and survey for contamination of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in feed. J Fd Hyg Safety 26: 1-11.
  19. Moon SH, Koh SE, Oh Y, Cho HS. 2020. Exposure to low concentrations of mycotoxins triggers unique responses from the pig gut microbiome. Korean J Vet Serv. 43: 39-44.
  20. Nogueira MS, Decundo J, Martinez M, Dieguez SN, Moreyra F, Moreno MV, Stenglein SA. 2018. Natural contamination with mycotoxins produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in malting barley in Argentina. Toxins 10: 78.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Pereyra CM, Cavaglieri LR, Chiacchiera SM, Dalcero AM. 2011. Mycobiota and mycotoxins contamination in raw materials and finished feed intended for fattening pigs production in eastern Argentina. Vet Res Commun 35: 367-379.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Pleadin J, Zadravec M, Perši N, Vulic A, Jaki V, Mitak M. 2012. Mould and mycotoxin contamination of pig feed in northwest Croatia. Mycotoxin Res 28: 157-162.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Shi H, Li S, Bai Y, Prates LL, Lei Y, Yu P. 2018. Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in China: occurrence, detection techniques, toxicological effects and advances in mitigation technologies. Food Control 91: 202-215.
    CrossRef
  24. Song YK, Jung BY, Choi JS, Moon OK, Lee SH, Chung DH, PAK SI, Park CK. 2010. Survey on aflatoxins in pig feeds in Korean pig farms. Kor J Vet Publ Hlth. 34: 237-243.
  25. Whitlow LW, Hagler WM Jr, Diaz DE. 2020. Mycotoxins in feeds. Feedstuffs 74-84.
  26. Yang CW, Song GH, Lim WS. 2020. Effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feed on farm animals. J Hazard Mater 389: 122087.
    Pubmed CrossRef
KJVS
Jun 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.2, pp. 101~99

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