Top

Original Article

Split Viewer

Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(4): 263-268

Published online December 30, 2022

https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.4.263

© The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service

Productivity increase and odor reduction effect of fermented barley sprout extract in broiler farms

Gyurae Kim 1†, Ho-Seong Cho 2†, Sang-Joon Lee 1, Hyunsook Min 3, Gyeongchan Go 3, Dongseob Tark 4, Yeonsu Oh 1*

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea
3Ventex Co., Ltd., Seongnam 13493, Korea
4Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54531, Korea

Correspondence to : Yeonsu Oh
E-mail: yeonoh@kangwon.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-5396
These first two authors contributed equally to this work.

Received: September 9, 2022; Revised: November 30, 2022; Accepted: November 30, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The current study examined the impact of fermented barley sprout extract prepared using lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.) in decreasing odor and increasing livestock productivity and measured the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract after fermentation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of fermented barley sprout extract was evaluated through order level and production index of livestock by supplying it to a broiler house. The results showed that with fermented barley sprout extract, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents were increased significantly by 174% and 562%, respectively. When the extract was applied as an additive to drinking water in the test farm, the productivity improved by about 10%, the mortality rate was reduced by about 66%, and there was a significant decrease in odor by about 80%. Compared with the control group, the production index increased by about 21%, the feed requirement decreased by about 8%, the odor showed a decrease in the NH3 level, and no other gas was detected. It was observed that lactic acid bacteria settle in the intestine, suppress the proliferation of bacteria that cause diarrhea and enteritis, and help digestion. The lactic acid bacteria effectively remove bad odor gases such as NH3, Amines, H2S and CH4S. Such odor reduction improves productivity. Our findings provide valuable information for quality water supply, production optimization and livestock management.

Keywords Fermented barley sprout, Flavonoid, Livestock odor, Polyphenol, Productivity

The productivity of livestock and the odor that occurs in the farmhouse are the biggest concerns to livestock farm workers. In particular, the odor problem acts as a great stressor not only for the residents of the farmhouse, but also for the animals living in the farmhouse, resulting in reduced immunity and chronic disease infection, which can even affect the productivity of livestock (Almuhanna et al, 2011; Naseem and Annie, 2018). In addition, it has been confirmed in previous experiments that productivity has been increased when odor was improved (Kim et al, 2022). In order to improve the odor problem, related institutions have supplied domestic odor reduction facilities and livestock excreta treatment facilities to farms as livestock odor improvement projects. Recently, the importance of breeding management has been suggested to eliminate the fundamental cause of odor (Sutton et al, 2006).

Recently, eco-probiotic solutions with microorganisms have been regarded as a way to solve the livestock odor problem. Probiotics, including Lactobacillus and some Bacillus, are live bacteria that help in sustaining and improving the beneficial gut microbiota, enhancing host immunity, and inhibiting pathogens in the gut (Mahesh et al, 2021). When livestock are treated with probiotics, it lowers the incidence of intestinal diseases and increases digestion rate. These effects can result in an increase in productivity and a reduction in odor by suppressing harmful bacteria that can produce odor gas (Choi et al, 2019).

In addition, polyphenols and flavonoids are attracting attention as natural plant feed additives to increase productivity. These are compounds found in plants and are well known for their oxidizing effect that protects cells and DNA from free radicals (Eun et al, 2016). Therefore, when the livestock consumes them, the meat quality and productivity can be improved (Serra et al, 2021; Surai, 2014). It is known that polyphenols and flavonoids are abundantly present in sprouted barley and grapes, etc. and their bioavailability and content increase in a fermented form (Lee et al, 2018).

Currently, various feed additives using probiotics and polyphenols have been studied and marketed (Sung et al, 2017). However, there have been few applications of extracts such as those of grapes and barley sprouts as drinking water additives. Therefore, in our research, we applied a fermentation process using Lactobacillus to sprouted barley to improve the efficacy of polyphenols and, at the same time, to produce a fermented solution of sprouted barley with probiotics added. In addition, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of this fermented solution on productivity and odor reduction in livestock by using it as a drinking water additive for broilers.

Manufacture of fermented sprouted barley extract

The extract was produced with purified water, sprouted barley powder (Smart Jeju Eco-friendly Agriculture, Jeju, Korea), Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus Paracasei, and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Hebei Shuntian biotechnology, Hebei, China) together. The ratio of purified water, sprouted barley powder, and probiotics was 50:5:1, respectively. We mixed materials and incubation at 35℃, for 48 hours in a 1-ton incubator. After incubation, the extract was fermented at room temperature for 24 hours. After fermentation and filtration, dextrin, sea salt, and fructo-oligosaccharide were added as additives. The extract was refrigerated at 4℃ and used for experiments.

Total polyphenol content (TPC) analysis

The polyphenol content of the fermented sprouted barley extract was analyzed via absorbance by referring to a method described elsewhere (Yoo et al, 2017). Briefly, we used the principle wherein Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent is reduced by polyphenolic compounds in the extract and develops a molybdenum blue color. To 1 mL of the sample, 9 mL of distilled water was added to dilute it, and 4 mL of 1N Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) was added to 4 mL of the diluted sample; this was then left for 5 minutes, and 4 mL of 10% Na2CO3 was then added. The absorbance was measured at 725 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Jasco V-730, Tokyo, Japan) after 2 hours at room temperature. The total polyphenol quantification was calculated from a standard curve prepared using gallic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) as a standard material.

Total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis

The total flavonoid content was measured by referring to a method described elsewhere (Yoo et al, 2017). Briefly, after mixing 1 mL of 1N NaOH solution and 10 mL of 99% diethylene glycol, 1 mL of the sample and 11 mL of the mixed solution were mixed and, left at room temperature for 1 hour; absorbance was then measured at 420 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Jasco V-730, Tokyo, Japan). The total flavonoid quantification was calculated from a standard curve prepared using Quercetin as a standard material.

Measurement of the number of lactic acid bacteria

The number of lactic acid bacteria was measured by referring to the Food Standards (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, 2022). The uniformly mixed sample was diluted with sterile physiological saline (0.85% NaCl) according to the decimal dilution method, and 1 mL of the diluted sample and 20 mL of BCP (Bromocresol purple agar) were uniformly mixed well and incubated at 37℃ for 72 hours. After that, the number of lactic acid bacteria was counted.

Composition of the experimental group

In the comparative evaluation of odor level and production index among farms, a total of three control groups and one test group were selected: Farm A (closed type), Farm B (closed type), Farm C (open type), and the test farm (closed type). Breeding scale of each farm is as follows: 20,000 broiler chickens (Farm A); 35,000 broiler chickens (Farm B); 50,000 broiler chickens (Farm C); 50,000 broiler chickens (Test Farm). All farms used rice husks as a mat, which are generally used in broiler farms of Korea. In addition, all broilers were fed the same feed (Integration company, 18∼20% crude protein, 2∼5% ether extract, 8% ash, 6% crude fiber, and 2,800∼3,000 kcal/kg of metabolic energy). At experiment, the Test Farm was applied 200ml of fermented barley sprouts per 1,000L of drinking water for six months.

Performance of fermented sprouted barley extract

In the case of the experimental farm, the mortality rate and shipping date before and after application of the fermented barley sprout extract were compared, and the odor level (NH3) was evaluated once using a portable gas detector (Tiger 2000, Wandi Inc., China). In addition, the health of the feet and the degree of contamination of the body were grossly evaluated.

Comparative evaluation of odor and production index among farms

In the evaluation of the production index among the experimental farm and the control farms, the production index ([average weight×shipping rate]÷[breeding date×feed conversion ratio]÷10), feed demand rate, breeding age, shipment rate, and average weight were compared with reference to the average breeding performance at three times. In the odor evaluation, for the control farms A, B, and C, we used the values of the ‘Assessment of Odor Characterization and Odor Unit from Livestock Facilities by animal’. In the experimental farm, there are no data on that, so the values were measured on request by the Korea Comprehensive Pollution Testing Laboratory, which is an odor inspection agency designated by the National Institute Of Environmental Research. In accordance with the odor process test standard, ammonia was measured once using a boric acid solution absorption method, and for sulfur compounds, a gas chromatography method was used after low temperature concentration.

Composition of fermented sprouted barley extract

Table 1 shows the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the sprouted barley and fermented sprouted barley extract. The polyphenol content increased by 174% from 2.512±0.141 mg GAE/mL before fermentation to 4.395±0.053 mg GAE/mL after fermentation, and the flavonoid content increased by 562% from 3.505±0.360 mg QE/mL before fermentation to 19.695±0.218 mg QE/mL after fermentation. The content of both substances showed a significant increase after fermentation. The number of lactic acid bacteria was measured as 2.5×108 CFU/mL.

Table 1 . Comparison of contents between barley sprouts and fermented barley sprout extract

Barley sproutsFermented barley sprout extractNote
Polyphenols (mg GAE/mL)2.512±0.1414.395±0.053174% increase
Flavonoids (mg QE/mL)3.505±0.36019.695±0.218562% increase
Lactobacillus (CFU/mL)-2.5×108

GAE, gallic acid equivalent; QE, quercetin equivalent.



Performance of fermented sprouted barley extract

Table 2 shows the shipping day, mortality, and odor before and after application of the fermented sprouted barley extract, and the changes are shown in Fig. 1. While the time to shipping before application was more than 33 days, the average weight after application was 1,750 g with shipping at 30 days, showing a decrease in time to shipping of about 10%. In the case of odor, the odor level at the center showed a significant decrease of about 80% from 30 ppm to less than 7 ppm, and the odor level at the site boundary decreased from 1 ppm to 0 ppm. The state of health of the chicken feet and body was as shown in Fig. 2.

Table 2 . Comparison of productivity and odor before and after application of the fermented barley sprout extract

BeforeAfter
Shipping date (days)3330
Mortality (%)31
Odor (Center) (ppm)307
Odor (Boundary) (ppm)10


Fig. 1.Changes in productivity and odor after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

Fig. 2.Appearance of body and feet after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

Comparison between the experimental farm and the control farms

The difference in production index between the control farms and the experimental farm is shown in Table 3, and the difference in the amount of odor gas is shown in Table 4. Among the four farms, the experimental farm showed the highest production index at 454, an increase of about 21% from the average of 374 for the control farms, and it showed the lowest feed demand rate of 1.35, a decrease of about 8% from the average of 1.46 for the control farms. In the case of the experimental farm, the NH3 level was 7 ppm, which was relatively decreased compared to Farms B and C, and no other odor gas was detected.

Table 3 . Comparison of productivity among the farms

Production index (PI)Feed conversion ratio (FCR)Breeding day (Days)Shipping rate (%)Average weight (kg)
Farm A3471.4730961.59
Farm B3691.4831.61001.72
Farm C4061.423199.51.79
Experimental Farm4541.35291001.8


Table 4 . Comparison of odor gas production among the farms

NH3H2SCH4SC2H6S2
Farm A (closed)3.3-11.9-
Farm B (closed)25.011.910.713.2
Farm C (open)15.011.712.58.1
Experimental farm (closed)7---

In this study, fermented barley sprout extract was prepared using lactic acid bacteria, which are known to be effective in removing the odor of excretions and increasing livestock productivity, and the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract was measured after fermentation. Furthermore, by applying it to a broiler house, we evaluated the odor level and the production index of livestock to determine the effectiveness of the fermented sprouted barley extract.

As a result of the content analysis of the fermented sprouted barley extract, it was confirmed that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased significantly by 174% and 562%, respectively. When the fermented sprouted barley extract was applied as a drinking water additive to the test farm, it showed improved productivity with a reduction of about 10% in shipping date, a decrease of about 66% in mortality compared to that before application, and a significant decrease in odor by about 80%. In comparison with the control group, the production index increased by about 21%, the feed requirement decreased by about 8%, the odor showed a decrease in the NH3 level, and no other gas was detected. This increase in productivity showed similar results as when polyphenol extracts from olive leaves were administered in drinking (Oke et al, 2017).

It is thought that lactic acid bacteria settle in the intestine, suppress the proliferation of bacteria that cause diarrhea and enteritis, and help the digestion of feed. In addition, it is believed that lactic acid bacteria effectively remove NH3, Amines, H2S, CH4S, etc., which are the main causative substances of bad odor, and reduce odor by suppressing odor-producing bacteria (Choi et al, 2019). Because the odor reduction effect of lactobacillus varies depending on the amount of intake, it was believed that lactobacillus has grown enough during the fermentation process (Ahmed et al, 2014). This odor reduction may also be one of the causes of increased productivity.

Although it showed a significant modification, there is a need to improve the strong sour smell generated by the fermented barley sprouts, and there may be concerns about a decrease in the palatability of livestock. To improve this, it is thought that it is necessary to reduce the amount of lactic acid bacteria used, supplement other probiotic bacteria, or use an additional filtration process. In addition, studies on probiotics, polyphenols, and flavonoids as feed additives showed variable results depending on dietary composition, dosage, strain, and environmental factors (Surai, 2013). Therefore, additional research to find an appropriate combination is needed.

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2021M3E9A1094035).

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

  1. Ahmed ST, Islam MM, Mun HS, Sim HJ, Yang CJ. 2014. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotics strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 93:1963-1971.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Almuhanna EA, Al-Yousif YM. 2011. Effect of air contaminants on poultry immunological and production performance. Int J Poult Sci 10:461-470.
    CrossRef
  3. Choi YM and Choi YJ. 2019. Regulation of odor gas emission and performance by probiotic Bacillus in livestock industry. Arch Anim Poult Sci 1:555560.
    CrossRef
  4. Eun CS, Hwang EY, Lee SO, Yu MH. 2016. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of barley sprout extract. J Life Sci 26:537-544.
    CrossRef
  5. Kim G, Lee S, Kim T, Krisdianti, Aufa S, Min H, Go G, Oh Y. 2022. Odor reduction effect of microbially activated peat in broiler houses. Korean J Vet Serv 45:111-116.
    CrossRef
  6. Lee JH, Yoon YC, Kim JK, Park YE, Hwang HS, Lee JB. 2018. Antioxidant and whitening effects of the fermentation of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.) using lactic acid bacteria. J Life Sci 28:444-453.
  7. Mahesh MS, Patra AK. 2021. Probiotics in livestock and poultry nutrition and health. Advances in Probiotics for Sustainable Food and Medicine 149-179.
    CrossRef
  8. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2022. Measurement of the number of lactic acid bacteria. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety Notice No. 2022-48 (2022.6. 30).
  9. Naseem S and Annie JK. 2018. Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment-techniques for its reduction during poultry production. Environ Sci Pollut Res: 15269-15293.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Oke OE, Emeshili UK, Iyasere OS, Abioja MO, Daramola JO, Adejuyigbe AE. 2017. Physiological responses and performance of broiler chickens offered olive leaf extract under a hot humid tropical climate. J Appl Poult Res 26:376-382.
    CrossRef
  11. Serra V, Pastorelli G. 2021. Dietary polyphenol supplementation in food producing animals: Effects on the quality of derived products. Animals 11:401.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Sung HG, Cho SB, Lee SS, Lee SS. 2017. Study on Korean commercial additives and agents for reducing odor of manure in animal farm. J Agric Life Sci 51:95-104.
    CrossRef
  13. Surai PF. 2014. Polyphenol compounds in the chicken/animal diet: from the past to the future. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr: 19-31.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Sutton A, Applegate T, Hankins S, Hill1 B, Sholly D, Allee G, Greene W, Kohn R, Meyer D, Van Kempen T. 2006. Manipulation of animal diets to affect manure production, composition and odors: state of the science. National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management 377-408.
  15. Yoo IS, Baek CM, Kwon SC. 2017. Study of anti-oxidant analysis to vegetable juice containing barley sprouts. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society 18:248-253.

Article

Original Article

Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(4): 263-268

Published online December 30, 2022 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.4.263

Copyright © The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service.

Productivity increase and odor reduction effect of fermented barley sprout extract in broiler farms

Gyurae Kim 1†, Ho-Seong Cho 2†, Sang-Joon Lee 1, Hyunsook Min 3, Gyeongchan Go 3, Dongseob Tark 4, Yeonsu Oh 1*

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea
3Ventex Co., Ltd., Seongnam 13493, Korea
4Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54531, Korea

Correspondence to:Yeonsu Oh
E-mail: yeonoh@kangwon.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-5396
These first two authors contributed equally to this work.

Received: September 9, 2022; Revised: November 30, 2022; Accepted: November 30, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The current study examined the impact of fermented barley sprout extract prepared using lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.) in decreasing odor and increasing livestock productivity and measured the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract after fermentation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of fermented barley sprout extract was evaluated through order level and production index of livestock by supplying it to a broiler house. The results showed that with fermented barley sprout extract, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents were increased significantly by 174% and 562%, respectively. When the extract was applied as an additive to drinking water in the test farm, the productivity improved by about 10%, the mortality rate was reduced by about 66%, and there was a significant decrease in odor by about 80%. Compared with the control group, the production index increased by about 21%, the feed requirement decreased by about 8%, the odor showed a decrease in the NH3 level, and no other gas was detected. It was observed that lactic acid bacteria settle in the intestine, suppress the proliferation of bacteria that cause diarrhea and enteritis, and help digestion. The lactic acid bacteria effectively remove bad odor gases such as NH3, Amines, H2S and CH4S. Such odor reduction improves productivity. Our findings provide valuable information for quality water supply, production optimization and livestock management.

Keywords: Fermented barley sprout, Flavonoid, Livestock odor, Polyphenol, Productivity

INTRODUCTION

The productivity of livestock and the odor that occurs in the farmhouse are the biggest concerns to livestock farm workers. In particular, the odor problem acts as a great stressor not only for the residents of the farmhouse, but also for the animals living in the farmhouse, resulting in reduced immunity and chronic disease infection, which can even affect the productivity of livestock (Almuhanna et al, 2011; Naseem and Annie, 2018). In addition, it has been confirmed in previous experiments that productivity has been increased when odor was improved (Kim et al, 2022). In order to improve the odor problem, related institutions have supplied domestic odor reduction facilities and livestock excreta treatment facilities to farms as livestock odor improvement projects. Recently, the importance of breeding management has been suggested to eliminate the fundamental cause of odor (Sutton et al, 2006).

Recently, eco-probiotic solutions with microorganisms have been regarded as a way to solve the livestock odor problem. Probiotics, including Lactobacillus and some Bacillus, are live bacteria that help in sustaining and improving the beneficial gut microbiota, enhancing host immunity, and inhibiting pathogens in the gut (Mahesh et al, 2021). When livestock are treated with probiotics, it lowers the incidence of intestinal diseases and increases digestion rate. These effects can result in an increase in productivity and a reduction in odor by suppressing harmful bacteria that can produce odor gas (Choi et al, 2019).

In addition, polyphenols and flavonoids are attracting attention as natural plant feed additives to increase productivity. These are compounds found in plants and are well known for their oxidizing effect that protects cells and DNA from free radicals (Eun et al, 2016). Therefore, when the livestock consumes them, the meat quality and productivity can be improved (Serra et al, 2021; Surai, 2014). It is known that polyphenols and flavonoids are abundantly present in sprouted barley and grapes, etc. and their bioavailability and content increase in a fermented form (Lee et al, 2018).

Currently, various feed additives using probiotics and polyphenols have been studied and marketed (Sung et al, 2017). However, there have been few applications of extracts such as those of grapes and barley sprouts as drinking water additives. Therefore, in our research, we applied a fermentation process using Lactobacillus to sprouted barley to improve the efficacy of polyphenols and, at the same time, to produce a fermented solution of sprouted barley with probiotics added. In addition, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of this fermented solution on productivity and odor reduction in livestock by using it as a drinking water additive for broilers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Manufacture of fermented sprouted barley extract

The extract was produced with purified water, sprouted barley powder (Smart Jeju Eco-friendly Agriculture, Jeju, Korea), Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Lactobacillus Paracasei, and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Hebei Shuntian biotechnology, Hebei, China) together. The ratio of purified water, sprouted barley powder, and probiotics was 50:5:1, respectively. We mixed materials and incubation at 35℃, for 48 hours in a 1-ton incubator. After incubation, the extract was fermented at room temperature for 24 hours. After fermentation and filtration, dextrin, sea salt, and fructo-oligosaccharide were added as additives. The extract was refrigerated at 4℃ and used for experiments.

Total polyphenol content (TPC) analysis

The polyphenol content of the fermented sprouted barley extract was analyzed via absorbance by referring to a method described elsewhere (Yoo et al, 2017). Briefly, we used the principle wherein Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent is reduced by polyphenolic compounds in the extract and develops a molybdenum blue color. To 1 mL of the sample, 9 mL of distilled water was added to dilute it, and 4 mL of 1N Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) was added to 4 mL of the diluted sample; this was then left for 5 minutes, and 4 mL of 10% Na2CO3 was then added. The absorbance was measured at 725 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Jasco V-730, Tokyo, Japan) after 2 hours at room temperature. The total polyphenol quantification was calculated from a standard curve prepared using gallic acid (Sigma-Aldrich, MO, USA) as a standard material.

Total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis

The total flavonoid content was measured by referring to a method described elsewhere (Yoo et al, 2017). Briefly, after mixing 1 mL of 1N NaOH solution and 10 mL of 99% diethylene glycol, 1 mL of the sample and 11 mL of the mixed solution were mixed and, left at room temperature for 1 hour; absorbance was then measured at 420 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Jasco V-730, Tokyo, Japan). The total flavonoid quantification was calculated from a standard curve prepared using Quercetin as a standard material.

Measurement of the number of lactic acid bacteria

The number of lactic acid bacteria was measured by referring to the Food Standards (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, 2022). The uniformly mixed sample was diluted with sterile physiological saline (0.85% NaCl) according to the decimal dilution method, and 1 mL of the diluted sample and 20 mL of BCP (Bromocresol purple agar) were uniformly mixed well and incubated at 37℃ for 72 hours. After that, the number of lactic acid bacteria was counted.

Composition of the experimental group

In the comparative evaluation of odor level and production index among farms, a total of three control groups and one test group were selected: Farm A (closed type), Farm B (closed type), Farm C (open type), and the test farm (closed type). Breeding scale of each farm is as follows: 20,000 broiler chickens (Farm A); 35,000 broiler chickens (Farm B); 50,000 broiler chickens (Farm C); 50,000 broiler chickens (Test Farm). All farms used rice husks as a mat, which are generally used in broiler farms of Korea. In addition, all broilers were fed the same feed (Integration company, 18∼20% crude protein, 2∼5% ether extract, 8% ash, 6% crude fiber, and 2,800∼3,000 kcal/kg of metabolic energy). At experiment, the Test Farm was applied 200ml of fermented barley sprouts per 1,000L of drinking water for six months.

Performance of fermented sprouted barley extract

In the case of the experimental farm, the mortality rate and shipping date before and after application of the fermented barley sprout extract were compared, and the odor level (NH3) was evaluated once using a portable gas detector (Tiger 2000, Wandi Inc., China). In addition, the health of the feet and the degree of contamination of the body were grossly evaluated.

Comparative evaluation of odor and production index among farms

In the evaluation of the production index among the experimental farm and the control farms, the production index ([average weight×shipping rate]÷[breeding date×feed conversion ratio]÷10), feed demand rate, breeding age, shipment rate, and average weight were compared with reference to the average breeding performance at three times. In the odor evaluation, for the control farms A, B, and C, we used the values of the ‘Assessment of Odor Characterization and Odor Unit from Livestock Facilities by animal’. In the experimental farm, there are no data on that, so the values were measured on request by the Korea Comprehensive Pollution Testing Laboratory, which is an odor inspection agency designated by the National Institute Of Environmental Research. In accordance with the odor process test standard, ammonia was measured once using a boric acid solution absorption method, and for sulfur compounds, a gas chromatography method was used after low temperature concentration.

RESULTS

Composition of fermented sprouted barley extract

Table 1 shows the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the sprouted barley and fermented sprouted barley extract. The polyphenol content increased by 174% from 2.512±0.141 mg GAE/mL before fermentation to 4.395±0.053 mg GAE/mL after fermentation, and the flavonoid content increased by 562% from 3.505±0.360 mg QE/mL before fermentation to 19.695±0.218 mg QE/mL after fermentation. The content of both substances showed a significant increase after fermentation. The number of lactic acid bacteria was measured as 2.5×108 CFU/mL.

Table 1 . Comparison of contents between barley sprouts and fermented barley sprout extract.

Barley sproutsFermented barley sprout extractNote
Polyphenols (mg GAE/mL)2.512±0.1414.395±0.053174% increase
Flavonoids (mg QE/mL)3.505±0.36019.695±0.218562% increase
Lactobacillus (CFU/mL)-2.5×108

GAE, gallic acid equivalent; QE, quercetin equivalent..



Performance of fermented sprouted barley extract

Table 2 shows the shipping day, mortality, and odor before and after application of the fermented sprouted barley extract, and the changes are shown in Fig. 1. While the time to shipping before application was more than 33 days, the average weight after application was 1,750 g with shipping at 30 days, showing a decrease in time to shipping of about 10%. In the case of odor, the odor level at the center showed a significant decrease of about 80% from 30 ppm to less than 7 ppm, and the odor level at the site boundary decreased from 1 ppm to 0 ppm. The state of health of the chicken feet and body was as shown in Fig. 2.

Table 2 . Comparison of productivity and odor before and after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

BeforeAfter
Shipping date (days)3330
Mortality (%)31
Odor (Center) (ppm)307
Odor (Boundary) (ppm)10


Figure 1. Changes in productivity and odor after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

Figure 2. Appearance of body and feet after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

Comparison between the experimental farm and the control farms

The difference in production index between the control farms and the experimental farm is shown in Table 3, and the difference in the amount of odor gas is shown in Table 4. Among the four farms, the experimental farm showed the highest production index at 454, an increase of about 21% from the average of 374 for the control farms, and it showed the lowest feed demand rate of 1.35, a decrease of about 8% from the average of 1.46 for the control farms. In the case of the experimental farm, the NH3 level was 7 ppm, which was relatively decreased compared to Farms B and C, and no other odor gas was detected.

Table 3 . Comparison of productivity among the farms.

Production index (PI)Feed conversion ratio (FCR)Breeding day (Days)Shipping rate (%)Average weight (kg)
Farm A3471.4730961.59
Farm B3691.4831.61001.72
Farm C4061.423199.51.79
Experimental Farm4541.35291001.8


Table 4 . Comparison of odor gas production among the farms.

NH3H2SCH4SC2H6S2
Farm A (closed)3.3-11.9-
Farm B (closed)25.011.910.713.2
Farm C (open)15.011.712.58.1
Experimental farm (closed)7---

DISCUSSION

In this study, fermented barley sprout extract was prepared using lactic acid bacteria, which are known to be effective in removing the odor of excretions and increasing livestock productivity, and the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract was measured after fermentation. Furthermore, by applying it to a broiler house, we evaluated the odor level and the production index of livestock to determine the effectiveness of the fermented sprouted barley extract.

As a result of the content analysis of the fermented sprouted barley extract, it was confirmed that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased significantly by 174% and 562%, respectively. When the fermented sprouted barley extract was applied as a drinking water additive to the test farm, it showed improved productivity with a reduction of about 10% in shipping date, a decrease of about 66% in mortality compared to that before application, and a significant decrease in odor by about 80%. In comparison with the control group, the production index increased by about 21%, the feed requirement decreased by about 8%, the odor showed a decrease in the NH3 level, and no other gas was detected. This increase in productivity showed similar results as when polyphenol extracts from olive leaves were administered in drinking (Oke et al, 2017).

It is thought that lactic acid bacteria settle in the intestine, suppress the proliferation of bacteria that cause diarrhea and enteritis, and help the digestion of feed. In addition, it is believed that lactic acid bacteria effectively remove NH3, Amines, H2S, CH4S, etc., which are the main causative substances of bad odor, and reduce odor by suppressing odor-producing bacteria (Choi et al, 2019). Because the odor reduction effect of lactobacillus varies depending on the amount of intake, it was believed that lactobacillus has grown enough during the fermentation process (Ahmed et al, 2014). This odor reduction may also be one of the causes of increased productivity.

Although it showed a significant modification, there is a need to improve the strong sour smell generated by the fermented barley sprouts, and there may be concerns about a decrease in the palatability of livestock. To improve this, it is thought that it is necessary to reduce the amount of lactic acid bacteria used, supplement other probiotic bacteria, or use an additional filtration process. In addition, studies on probiotics, polyphenols, and flavonoids as feed additives showed variable results depending on dietary composition, dosage, strain, and environmental factors (Surai, 2013). Therefore, additional research to find an appropriate combination is needed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2021M3E9A1094035).

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Changes in productivity and odor after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Service 2022; 45: 263-268https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.4.263

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Appearance of body and feet after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Service 2022; 45: 263-268https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.4.263

Table 1 . Comparison of contents between barley sprouts and fermented barley sprout extract.

Barley sproutsFermented barley sprout extractNote
Polyphenols (mg GAE/mL)2.512±0.1414.395±0.053174% increase
Flavonoids (mg QE/mL)3.505±0.36019.695±0.218562% increase
Lactobacillus (CFU/mL)-2.5×108

GAE, gallic acid equivalent; QE, quercetin equivalent..


Table 2 . Comparison of productivity and odor before and after application of the fermented barley sprout extract.

BeforeAfter
Shipping date (days)3330
Mortality (%)31
Odor (Center) (ppm)307
Odor (Boundary) (ppm)10

Table 3 . Comparison of productivity among the farms.

Production index (PI)Feed conversion ratio (FCR)Breeding day (Days)Shipping rate (%)Average weight (kg)
Farm A3471.4730961.59
Farm B3691.4831.61001.72
Farm C4061.423199.51.79
Experimental Farm4541.35291001.8

Table 4 . Comparison of odor gas production among the farms.

NH3H2SCH4SC2H6S2
Farm A (closed)3.3-11.9-
Farm B (closed)25.011.910.713.2
Farm C (open)15.011.712.58.1
Experimental farm (closed)7---

References

  1. Ahmed ST, Islam MM, Mun HS, Sim HJ, Yang CJ. 2014. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotics strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. Poult Sci 93:1963-1971.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Almuhanna EA, Al-Yousif YM. 2011. Effect of air contaminants on poultry immunological and production performance. Int J Poult Sci 10:461-470.
    CrossRef
  3. Choi YM and Choi YJ. 2019. Regulation of odor gas emission and performance by probiotic Bacillus in livestock industry. Arch Anim Poult Sci 1:555560.
    CrossRef
  4. Eun CS, Hwang EY, Lee SO, Yu MH. 2016. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of barley sprout extract. J Life Sci 26:537-544.
    CrossRef
  5. Kim G, Lee S, Kim T, Krisdianti, Aufa S, Min H, Go G, Oh Y. 2022. Odor reduction effect of microbially activated peat in broiler houses. Korean J Vet Serv 45:111-116.
    CrossRef
  6. Lee JH, Yoon YC, Kim JK, Park YE, Hwang HS, Lee JB. 2018. Antioxidant and whitening effects of the fermentation of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.) using lactic acid bacteria. J Life Sci 28:444-453.
  7. Mahesh MS, Patra AK. 2021. Probiotics in livestock and poultry nutrition and health. Advances in Probiotics for Sustainable Food and Medicine 149-179.
    CrossRef
  8. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2022. Measurement of the number of lactic acid bacteria. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety Notice No. 2022-48 (2022.6. 30).
  9. Naseem S and Annie JK. 2018. Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment-techniques for its reduction during poultry production. Environ Sci Pollut Res: 15269-15293.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Oke OE, Emeshili UK, Iyasere OS, Abioja MO, Daramola JO, Adejuyigbe AE. 2017. Physiological responses and performance of broiler chickens offered olive leaf extract under a hot humid tropical climate. J Appl Poult Res 26:376-382.
    CrossRef
  11. Serra V, Pastorelli G. 2021. Dietary polyphenol supplementation in food producing animals: Effects on the quality of derived products. Animals 11:401.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Sung HG, Cho SB, Lee SS, Lee SS. 2017. Study on Korean commercial additives and agents for reducing odor of manure in animal farm. J Agric Life Sci 51:95-104.
    CrossRef
  13. Surai PF. 2014. Polyphenol compounds in the chicken/animal diet: from the past to the future. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr: 19-31.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Sutton A, Applegate T, Hankins S, Hill1 B, Sholly D, Allee G, Greene W, Kohn R, Meyer D, Van Kempen T. 2006. Manipulation of animal diets to affect manure production, composition and odors: state of the science. National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management 377-408.
  15. Yoo IS, Baek CM, Kwon SC. 2017. Study of anti-oxidant analysis to vegetable juice containing barley sprouts. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society 18:248-253.
KJVS
Dec 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.4, pp. 249~342

Stats or Metrics

Share this article on

  • line
  • mail

Korean Journal of
Veterinary Service

eISSN 2287-7630
pISSN 1225-6552
qr-code Download