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Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 299-303

Published online December 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.299

© The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service

Primary diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

Krisdianti 1, Taeyeon Kim 1, Sulhi Aufa 1, Sangjoon Lee 1, Sangjin Ahn 1, Ho-Seong Cho 2*, Yeonsu Oh 1*

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea

Correspondence to : Yeonsu Oh
E-mail: yeonoh@kangwon.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-5396

Ho-Seong Cho
E-mail: hscho@jbnu.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7443-167X

Received: November 29, 2021; Revised: December 21, 2021; Accepted: December 21, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A captive male polar bear (Ursus maritimus ) was found dead after a long-term anorexia at a Park Zoo in Republic of Korea. At necropsy, the liver lesion was prominent with hepatomegaly carrying a big mass and numerous small nodules in various sizes. The cut surface of the nodules was creamy white, firm, and solid with umbilicated appearance. Histologically, there was proliferation of hepatocellular neoplastic cells arranged in glandular-like (pseudoglandular) pattern and complete loss of hepatocellular arrangement. The immunoreactivity for neoplastic hepatocyte antigens was positive for hepatocyte paraffin 1, and negative for vimentin, cytokeratin 7 and 19, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in the captive polar bear in Republic of Korea.

Keywords Hepatocellular carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry, Polar bear

  1. Chege S, Vissiennon T, Cavero T, Kinne J, Toosy A. 2015. A rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma in the arabian sand cat (Felis margarita harrisoni). J Zoo Wild Med. 46: 699-703.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Chu PG, Ishizawa S, Wu E, Weiss LM. 2002. Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma: an immunohistiochemical comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, and alpha-fetoprotein. Am J Surg Pathol. 26: 978-988.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Cullen JM, Popp JA. 2016. Tumors of the liver and gall bladder. In Meuten DJ (Ed.), Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th Ed. (pp 486-490). John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
  4. Goodman Z. 2007. Neoplasms of the liver. 20, S49-S60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Head KW, Cullen JM, Dubielzig RR, Else RW, Misdorp W, Patnaik AK, Tateyama S, van der Gaag I. 2003. In Schulman FY (Ed.), Histological Classification of Tumors of the Alimentary System of Domestic Animals. (pp. 119-135). Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC.
  6. Heier A, Gröne A, VöüVöllm J, Kübber-Heiss A, Bacciarini LN. 2003. Immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein in livers of polar bears (Thalarctos maritimus). Vet Pathol. 40: 196-202.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hellmann J, Hofmeister R, Göltenboth R. 1991. The occurrence of tumors in large bears (Ursidae)--a literature review and six case descriptions. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 104: 262-268.
  8. Jeong WI, Do SH, Sohn MH, Yun HS, Kwon OD, Kim TH, Jeong DH, Williams BH, Jeong KS. 2005. Hepatocellular carcinoma with metastasis to the spleen in a Holstein cow. Vet Pathol. 42: 230-232.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Pestel RG, Howell A, Tykocinski ML, Nagajyothi F, Machado F, Tanowitz HB, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP. 2011. Energy transfer in “parasitic” cancer metabolism. Cell cycle. 10: 4208-4216.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Mathewos M. 2021. Pathological and Cytological Studies on Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cattle Slaughtered at Bishoftu Elfora Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. Vet Med Int. 2021: 6649172.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Matsuda K, Qiu Y, Kawamura Y, Suzuki H, Takita Y, Sakamoto H, Sasaki K, Taniyama H. 2010. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). J Vet Med Sci. 72: 1213-1216.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Oh Y, Kim S, Oh S, Han J. 2016. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Vet Med Sci. 78: 485-487.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Pettan-Brewer KC, Lowenstine LJ. 1999. Intrahepatic cysts and hepatic neoplasms in felids, ursids, and other zoo and wild animals. pp. 426-427. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE (Eds.), Zoo & Wild Animal Medicine. Current Therapy, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  14. Quaglia A. 2018. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of diagnostic challenges for the pathologist. J Hepatocell Carcinoma. 5: 99-108.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Salguero FJ, Richard A, Gough J, Long A, Weyer U, Cooley WA, Chambers MA, Lesellier S. 2010. Pelioid hepatocellular carcinoma in an adult Eurasian badger (Meles meles). J Comp Pathol. 142: 208-212.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Schlageter M, Terracciano LM, D’Angelo S, Sorrentino P. 2014. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 20: 15955-15964.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Senoo H, Imai K, Mezaki Y, Miura M, Morii M, Fujiwara M, Blomhoff R. 2012. Accumulation of vitamin A in the hepatic stellate cell of arctic top predators. Anat Rec. 295: 1660-1668.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Wilson FD, Fitzgerald SD, Kiupel M, Walker RL, Williams CB, Todd DJ. 2007. Occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in an adult male Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros). J Zoo Wildl Med. 38: 329-332.
    CrossRef
  19. Zhang J, Chen G, Zhang P, Zhang J, Li X, Gan D, Cao X, Han M, Du H, Ye Y. 2020. The threshold of alpha-fetopotein (AFP) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and metanalysis. PLoS ONE. 15: e0228857.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Zhou L, Liu J, Luo F. 2006. Serum tumor markers for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 12: 1175-1181.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 299-303

Published online December 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.299

Copyright © The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service.

Primary diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma in a captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

Krisdianti 1, Taeyeon Kim 1, Sulhi Aufa 1, Sangjoon Lee 1, Sangjin Ahn 1, Ho-Seong Cho 2*, Yeonsu Oh 1*

1College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
2College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea

Correspondence to:Yeonsu Oh
E-mail: yeonoh@kangwon.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-5396

Ho-Seong Cho
E-mail: hscho@jbnu.ac.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7443-167X

Received: November 29, 2021; Revised: December 21, 2021; Accepted: December 21, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A captive male polar bear (Ursus maritimus ) was found dead after a long-term anorexia at a Park Zoo in Republic of Korea. At necropsy, the liver lesion was prominent with hepatomegaly carrying a big mass and numerous small nodules in various sizes. The cut surface of the nodules was creamy white, firm, and solid with umbilicated appearance. Histologically, there was proliferation of hepatocellular neoplastic cells arranged in glandular-like (pseudoglandular) pattern and complete loss of hepatocellular arrangement. The immunoreactivity for neoplastic hepatocyte antigens was positive for hepatocyte paraffin 1, and negative for vimentin, cytokeratin 7 and 19, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in the captive polar bear in Republic of Korea.

Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry, Polar bear

References

  1. Chege S, Vissiennon T, Cavero T, Kinne J, Toosy A. 2015. A rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma in the arabian sand cat (Felis margarita harrisoni). J Zoo Wild Med. 46: 699-703.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Chu PG, Ishizawa S, Wu E, Weiss LM. 2002. Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma: an immunohistiochemical comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, and alpha-fetoprotein. Am J Surg Pathol. 26: 978-988.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Cullen JM, Popp JA. 2016. Tumors of the liver and gall bladder. In Meuten DJ (Ed.), Tumors in Domestic Animals. 5th Ed. (pp 486-490). John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
  4. Goodman Z. 2007. Neoplasms of the liver. 20, S49-S60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Head KW, Cullen JM, Dubielzig RR, Else RW, Misdorp W, Patnaik AK, Tateyama S, van der Gaag I. 2003. In Schulman FY (Ed.), Histological Classification of Tumors of the Alimentary System of Domestic Animals. (pp. 119-135). Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC.
  6. Heier A, Gröne A, VöüVöllm J, Kübber-Heiss A, Bacciarini LN. 2003. Immunohistochemical study of retinol-binding protein in livers of polar bears (Thalarctos maritimus). Vet Pathol. 40: 196-202.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hellmann J, Hofmeister R, Göltenboth R. 1991. The occurrence of tumors in large bears (Ursidae)--a literature review and six case descriptions. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 104: 262-268.
  8. Jeong WI, Do SH, Sohn MH, Yun HS, Kwon OD, Kim TH, Jeong DH, Williams BH, Jeong KS. 2005. Hepatocellular carcinoma with metastasis to the spleen in a Holstein cow. Vet Pathol. 42: 230-232.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Pestel RG, Howell A, Tykocinski ML, Nagajyothi F, Machado F, Tanowitz HB, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP. 2011. Energy transfer in “parasitic” cancer metabolism. Cell cycle. 10: 4208-4216.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Mathewos M. 2021. Pathological and Cytological Studies on Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cattle Slaughtered at Bishoftu Elfora Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. Vet Med Int. 2021: 6649172.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Matsuda K, Qiu Y, Kawamura Y, Suzuki H, Takita Y, Sakamoto H, Sasaki K, Taniyama H. 2010. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). J Vet Med Sci. 72: 1213-1216.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Oh Y, Kim S, Oh S, Han J. 2016. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Vet Med Sci. 78: 485-487.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Pettan-Brewer KC, Lowenstine LJ. 1999. Intrahepatic cysts and hepatic neoplasms in felids, ursids, and other zoo and wild animals. pp. 426-427. In: Fowler ME, Miller RE (Eds.), Zoo & Wild Animal Medicine. Current Therapy, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  14. Quaglia A. 2018. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of diagnostic challenges for the pathologist. J Hepatocell Carcinoma. 5: 99-108.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Salguero FJ, Richard A, Gough J, Long A, Weyer U, Cooley WA, Chambers MA, Lesellier S. 2010. Pelioid hepatocellular carcinoma in an adult Eurasian badger (Meles meles). J Comp Pathol. 142: 208-212.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Schlageter M, Terracciano LM, D’Angelo S, Sorrentino P. 2014. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 20: 15955-15964.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Senoo H, Imai K, Mezaki Y, Miura M, Morii M, Fujiwara M, Blomhoff R. 2012. Accumulation of vitamin A in the hepatic stellate cell of arctic top predators. Anat Rec. 295: 1660-1668.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Wilson FD, Fitzgerald SD, Kiupel M, Walker RL, Williams CB, Todd DJ. 2007. Occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in an adult male Nile lechwe (Kobus megaceros). J Zoo Wildl Med. 38: 329-332.
    CrossRef
  19. Zhang J, Chen G, Zhang P, Zhang J, Li X, Gan D, Cao X, Han M, Du H, Ye Y. 2020. The threshold of alpha-fetopotein (AFP) for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and metanalysis. PLoS ONE. 15: e0228857.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Zhou L, Liu J, Luo F. 2006. Serum tumor markers for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 12: 1175-1181.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
KJVS
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.3, pp. 145~248

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