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Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 291-297

Published online December 30, 2021

https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.291

© The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service

A field approach to eradication of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus in a breeding pig farm: A case–control study

Eunju Kim , Seung-Won Yi , Sang-Ik Oh , Kyoung-Min So , Younghun Jung , Han Gyu Lee , Joon Ki Hong , Eun Seok Cho , Young-Sin Kim , Tai-Young Hur *

National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea

Correspondence to : Tai-Young Hur
E-mail: tyohur@korea.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3129-2942

Received: October 15, 2021; Accepted: December 8, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Severe outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have continued to re-emerge worldwide. Because of the high mortality rate of suckling piglets in PEDV outbreaks, the disease causes significant economic losses in the pig industry. The limited pre-existing immunity against this virus is thought to cause an explosive increase in infection in pig farms. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical symptoms of PEDV after intentional exposure (feedback). During the first few days of the outbreak in a breeding pig farm, 14 sows showed watery diarrhoea, and the disease subsequently spread rapidly throughout the barn. Pigs that were intentionally exposed to PEDV (n=251) showed watery diarrhoea (46.6%), reduced appetite (17.5%), and vomiting (6.0%). However, 75 exposed pigs (29.9%) showed no clinical signs of disease. Four weeks after the feedback challenge, 34 sows gave birth to litters of piglets, which survived with no diarrhoea. Five weeks after the start of the outbreak, PEDV was not detected in any of the examined samples, including environmental swabs. Thus, early diagnosis, prompt establishment of herd immunity, and strict application of biosecurity are good practices to reduce the mortality rates among new-born piglets and control economic losses in pig farms showing PEDV outbreaks.

Keywords Porcine epidemic diarrhoea, Feedback challenge, Intentional exposure, Herd immunity

  1. Chasey D, Cartwright SF. 1978. Virus-like particles associated with porcine epidemic diarrhoea. Res Vet Sci 25: 255-256.
    CrossRef
  2. Chen J, Wang C, Shi H, Qiu H, Liu S, Chen X, Zhang Z, Feng L. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China. Arch Virol 155: 1471-1476.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Clement T, Singrey A, Lawson S, Okda F, Nelson J, Diel D, Nelson EA, Christopher-Hennings J. 2016. Measurement of neutralizing antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in sow serum, colostrum, and milk samples and in piglet serum samples after feedback. J Swine Health Prod 24: 147-153.
  4. Egelkrout E, Hayden C, Fake G, Keener T, Arruda P, Saltzman R, Walker J, Howard J. 2020. Oral delivery of maize-produced porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein elicits neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture: 1-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Gao Y, Kou Q, Ge X, Zhou L, Guo X, Yang H. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus field strains prevailing recently in China. Arch Virol 158: 711-715.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Goede D, Morrison RB. 2016. Production impact & time to stability in sow herds infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Prev Vet Med 123: 202-207.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Goyal S. 2014. Interventions to control PEDV in feed and feed ingredients. Dostupno na http://www. pork. org/pedv-2014-research/pedv-feed.
  8. Jung K, Saif LJ, Wang Q. 2020. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): An update on etiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and prevention and control. Virus Res 286: 198045.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Jung K, Saif LJ. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis. Vet J 204 :134-143.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Kim SH, Lee JM, Jung J, Kim IJ, Hyun BH, Kim HI, Park CK, Oem JK, Kim YH, Lee MH, Lee KK. 2015. Genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Korea from 1998 to 2013. Arch Virol 160: 1055-1064.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Kweon CH, Kwon BJ, Jung TS, Kee YJ, Hur DH, Hwang EK, Rhee JC, An SH. 1993. Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Korea. Korea J Vet Res 33: 249-254.
  12. Langel SN, Paim FC, Lager KM, Vlasova AN, Saif LJ. 2016. Lactogenic immunity and vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): Historical and current concepts. Virus Res 226: 93-107.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Lee C. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: An emerging and re-emerging epizootic swine virus. Virol J 12: 193.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Lee S, Lee DU, Noh YH, Lee SC, Choi HW, Yang HS, Seol JH, Mun SH, Kang WM, Yoo H, Lee C. 2019. Molecular characteristics and pathogenic assessment of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus isolates from the 2018 endemic outbreaks on Jeju Island, South Korea. Transbound Emerg Dis 66: 1894-1909.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Li R, Qiao S, Yang Y, Su Y, Zhao P, Zhou E, Zhang G. 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) field strains in central China based on the ORF3 gene and the main neutralization epitopes. Arch Virol 159: 1057-1065.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Pensaert MB, Yeo SG. 2006. Porcine epidemic diarrhea. pp. 367-372. In: Straw BE, Zimmerman JJ, D’Allaire S, Taylor DJ(ed). Diseases of Swine. Ames, Blackwell.
  17. Pijpers A, van Nieuwstadt AP, Terpstra C, Verheijden JH. 1993. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus as a cause of persistent diarrhoea in a herd of breeding and finishing pigs. Vet Rec 132: 129-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Schulz LL, Tonsor GT. 2015. Assessment of the economic impacts of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States. J Anim Sci 93: 5111-5118.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  19. Song D, Moon H, Kang B. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea: a review of current epidemiology and available vaccines. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 4: 166-176.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Stevenson GW, Hoang H, Schwartz KJ, Burrough ER, Sun D, Madson D, et al. 2013. Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Invest 25: 649-654.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Tobler K, Bridgen A, Ackermann M. 1994. Sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid protein gene of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. In: Coronaviruses. pp. 49-54.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Wood EN. 1977. An apparently new syndrome of porcine epidemic diarrhoea. Vet Rec 100: 243-244.
    Pubmed CrossRef

Article

Case Report

Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2021; 44(4): 291-297

Published online December 30, 2021 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2021.44.4.291

Copyright © The Korean Socitety of Veterinary Service.

A field approach to eradication of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus in a breeding pig farm: A case–control study

Eunju Kim , Seung-Won Yi , Sang-Ik Oh , Kyoung-Min So , Younghun Jung , Han Gyu Lee , Joon Ki Hong , Eun Seok Cho , Young-Sin Kim , Tai-Young Hur *

National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea

Correspondence to:Tai-Young Hur
E-mail: tyohur@korea.kr
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3129-2942

Received: October 15, 2021; Accepted: December 8, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Severe outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have continued to re-emerge worldwide. Because of the high mortality rate of suckling piglets in PEDV outbreaks, the disease causes significant economic losses in the pig industry. The limited pre-existing immunity against this virus is thought to cause an explosive increase in infection in pig farms. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical symptoms of PEDV after intentional exposure (feedback). During the first few days of the outbreak in a breeding pig farm, 14 sows showed watery diarrhoea, and the disease subsequently spread rapidly throughout the barn. Pigs that were intentionally exposed to PEDV (n=251) showed watery diarrhoea (46.6%), reduced appetite (17.5%), and vomiting (6.0%). However, 75 exposed pigs (29.9%) showed no clinical signs of disease. Four weeks after the feedback challenge, 34 sows gave birth to litters of piglets, which survived with no diarrhoea. Five weeks after the start of the outbreak, PEDV was not detected in any of the examined samples, including environmental swabs. Thus, early diagnosis, prompt establishment of herd immunity, and strict application of biosecurity are good practices to reduce the mortality rates among new-born piglets and control economic losses in pig farms showing PEDV outbreaks.

Keywords: Porcine epidemic diarrhoea, Feedback challenge, Intentional exposure, Herd immunity

References

  1. Chasey D, Cartwright SF. 1978. Virus-like particles associated with porcine epidemic diarrhoea. Res Vet Sci 25: 255-256.
    CrossRef
  2. Chen J, Wang C, Shi H, Qiu H, Liu S, Chen X, Zhang Z, Feng L. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China. Arch Virol 155: 1471-1476.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Clement T, Singrey A, Lawson S, Okda F, Nelson J, Diel D, Nelson EA, Christopher-Hennings J. 2016. Measurement of neutralizing antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in sow serum, colostrum, and milk samples and in piglet serum samples after feedback. J Swine Health Prod 24: 147-153.
  4. Egelkrout E, Hayden C, Fake G, Keener T, Arruda P, Saltzman R, Walker J, Howard J. 2020. Oral delivery of maize-produced porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein elicits neutralizing antibodies in pigs. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture: 1-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Gao Y, Kou Q, Ge X, Zhou L, Guo X, Yang H. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus field strains prevailing recently in China. Arch Virol 158: 711-715.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Goede D, Morrison RB. 2016. Production impact & time to stability in sow herds infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Prev Vet Med 123: 202-207.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Goyal S. 2014. Interventions to control PEDV in feed and feed ingredients. Dostupno na http://www. pork. org/pedv-2014-research/pedv-feed.
  8. Jung K, Saif LJ, Wang Q. 2020. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): An update on etiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and prevention and control. Virus Res 286: 198045.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Jung K, Saif LJ. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis. Vet J 204 :134-143.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Kim SH, Lee JM, Jung J, Kim IJ, Hyun BH, Kim HI, Park CK, Oem JK, Kim YH, Lee MH, Lee KK. 2015. Genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Korea from 1998 to 2013. Arch Virol 160: 1055-1064.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Kweon CH, Kwon BJ, Jung TS, Kee YJ, Hur DH, Hwang EK, Rhee JC, An SH. 1993. Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Korea. Korea J Vet Res 33: 249-254.
  12. Langel SN, Paim FC, Lager KM, Vlasova AN, Saif LJ. 2016. Lactogenic immunity and vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV): Historical and current concepts. Virus Res 226: 93-107.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Lee C. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: An emerging and re-emerging epizootic swine virus. Virol J 12: 193.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Lee S, Lee DU, Noh YH, Lee SC, Choi HW, Yang HS, Seol JH, Mun SH, Kang WM, Yoo H, Lee C. 2019. Molecular characteristics and pathogenic assessment of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus isolates from the 2018 endemic outbreaks on Jeju Island, South Korea. Transbound Emerg Dis 66: 1894-1909.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Li R, Qiao S, Yang Y, Su Y, Zhao P, Zhou E, Zhang G. 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) field strains in central China based on the ORF3 gene and the main neutralization epitopes. Arch Virol 159: 1057-1065.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Pensaert MB, Yeo SG. 2006. Porcine epidemic diarrhea. pp. 367-372. In: Straw BE, Zimmerman JJ, D’Allaire S, Taylor DJ(ed). Diseases of Swine. Ames, Blackwell.
  17. Pijpers A, van Nieuwstadt AP, Terpstra C, Verheijden JH. 1993. Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus as a cause of persistent diarrhoea in a herd of breeding and finishing pigs. Vet Rec 132: 129-131.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Schulz LL, Tonsor GT. 2015. Assessment of the economic impacts of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States. J Anim Sci 93: 5111-5118.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  19. Song D, Moon H, Kang B. 2015. Porcine epidemic diarrhea: a review of current epidemiology and available vaccines. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 4: 166-176.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  20. Stevenson GW, Hoang H, Schwartz KJ, Burrough ER, Sun D, Madson D, et al. 2013. Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States: clinical signs, lesions, and viral genomic sequences. J Vet Diagn Invest 25: 649-654.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Tobler K, Bridgen A, Ackermann M. 1994. Sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid protein gene of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. In: Coronaviruses. pp. 49-54.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Wood EN. 1977. An apparently new syndrome of porcine epidemic diarrhoea. Vet Rec 100: 243-244.
    Pubmed CrossRef
KJVS
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.3, pp. 145~248

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