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  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 264 80

    Pilot study on risk factors associated with caseous lymphadenitis and its seasonal prevalence in the Korean native goat

    Jaylord M. Pioquinto , Md. Aftabuzzaman , Edeneil Jerome Valete , Hector Espiritu , Seon-Ho Kim , Su-Jeong Jin , Gi-chan Lee , A-Rang Son , Myunghwan Jung , Sang-Suk Lee , Yong-Il Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 255-262 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.255
    Abstract

    Abstract : Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an endemic but not well-studied disease of Korean native goats (KNG) in Korea. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of the contagious and chronic CLA found in goats. This study aimed to validate the potential risk factors associated with CLA and assess its seasonal prevalence to mitigate this disease in KNG. Data were collected through a questionnaire from four high- and four low-prevalence farms randomly selected based on a prior investigation. The monthly assessments of CLA were conducted in a goat abattoir located in Jeonnam Province, Korea, to evaluate its seasonal prevalence. The associated risk factors for CLA in KNG herds imply that herd size, scratching against pillars, pipes, or walls in the herd, and disinfection of goat herds are potential risk factors for CLA (P<0.05). The type of floor and entry of new goats into the herd, which are potential risk factors, affected CLA prevalence in the KNG herd (P<0.2). The prevalence of CLA in KNG was significantly higher in spring (29.34%) than in autumn (14.61%), summer (15.31%), and winter (19.48%) (P<0.05). Based on the risk factor assessment, attention should be to establishing accurate preventive measures by avoiding these identified potential risk factors.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 211 71

    Evaluation of concurrent immunizations with equine influenza virus and strangles vaccines

    Dong-Ha Lee , Kyungmin Jang , Taemook Park , Youngjong Kim , Kyoung Hwan Kim , Eun-bee Lee , Young Beom Kwak , Eun-Ju Ko

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 263-268 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.263
    Abstract

    Abstract : Despite regular vaccinations, equine influenza virus (EIV) and Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (strangles) are the cause of highly contagious respiratory infections in horses. Many recent studies have reported that the concurrent administration of two vaccines could simplify horse management and minimize veterinary expenses. However, there is little information available regarding the efficacy of concurrent vaccinations against EIV and strangles. In this study, we evaluated EIV-specific antibody responses following the single EIV vaccination with the recombinant viral-vectored EIV vaccine or concurrent vaccination with the EIV and inactivated strangles vaccines. Blood samples were collected at 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8 weeks post-immunization (wpi) from each group. EIV-specific antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay. Both single and concurrent vaccination showed similar levels of EIV-specific serum immunoglobulin g (IgG) at 1 and 2 wpi. However, at 4 to 8 wpi, the EIV-only vaccination group showed significantly higher serum IgG levels than those from the concurrently vaccinated group. The HAI titers showed similar trends as the ELISA data, except at 8 wpi when both groups presented HAI titers with no significant differences. These data demonstrate that the concurrent vaccination against EIV and strangles could compromise the humoral immune response to equine influenza between vaccination intervals, which suggests the use of the consecutive vaccination protocol for EIV and strangles rather than concurrent vaccination.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    1 222 64

    Development and evaluation of a triplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for rapid and differential detection of three feline respiratory viral pathogens

    Ji-Su Baek , Jong-Min Kim , Hye-Ryung Kim , Ji-Hoon Park , Yeun-Kyung Shin , Hae-Eun Kang , Jung-Hoon Kwon , Won-Jae Lee , Min Jang , Sang-Kwon Lee , Ho-Seong Cho , Yeonsu Oh , Oh-Deog Kwon , Choi-Kyu Park

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 269-281 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.269
    Abstract

    Abstract : In this study, a new triplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (tqRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid and differential detection of three feline viral pathogens including feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and influenza A virus (IAV) in a single reaction. The assay specifically amplified three targeted viral genes with a detection limit of below 10 copies/reaction. The assay showed high repeatability and reproducibility, with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of less than 1%. Based on the diagnostic results of the assay using 120 clinical samples obtained from cats with feline respiratory disease complex (FRDC)-suspected signs, the prevalence of FCV, FHV-1, or IAV was 43.3%, 22.5%, or 0%, respectively, indicating that the diagnostic sensitivity was comparable or superior to those of previously reported monoplex qRT-PCR/qPCR assays. The dual infection rate for FCV and FHV-1 was 8.3%. These results indicate that FCV and FHV-1 are widespread and that co-infection with FCV and FHV-1 frequently occur in the Korean cat population. The developed tqRT-PCR assay will serve as a promising tool for etiological and epidemiological studies of these three bacterial pathogens, and the prevalence data for three feline viruses obtained in this study will contribute to expanding knowledge about the epidemiology of FRDC in the current Korean cat population.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 181 73

    Prevalence and co-infection status of brucellosis and tuberculosis in Hanwoo in Jeonnam province

    Jun-Cheol Lee , Yeong-Bin Baek , Jun-Gyu Park , Sang-Ik Park

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 283-291 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.283
    Abstract

    Abstract : Brucellosis and tuberculosis are major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in cattle. These diseases are malicious diseases that must be inspected at the slaughterhouse of cattle in accordance with the practice of quarantine in Korea. Furthermore, both diseases lead to abortion, reproductive disorder, and calf disease, causing major difficulty in the breeding of Korean Native cattle (Hanwoo), a representative industrial animal currently being raised in Korea. Co-infections of these diseases intensify clinical symptoms such as abortion and have a particularly significant effect on increasing mortality. Thus, serological tests were performed in Hanwoo, to establish the association of co-infection between brucellosis and tuberculosis in cattle. ELISA and PCR tests were conducted on blood samples collected from a total of 102 cattle in Jeonnam province, Korea, to detect brucellosis and tuberculosis infections. The PCR results revealed that 41 samples tested positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) infection (40.20%), and 5 samples tested positive for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) (4.90%) infection confirmed by PCR. Notably, 9.76% (4/41) of the cattle infected with brucellosis also tested positive for tuberculosis. In conclusion, this study highlights the co-infection of brucellosis and tuberculosis among Hanwoo cattle in Jeonnam province, which is expected to contribute to our understanding of disease transmission, pathogenicity, the establishment of future prevention strategies.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 195 87

    Decadal analysis of livestock tuberculosis in Korea (2013∼2022): Epidemiological patterns and trends

    Yeonsu Oh , Dongseob Tark , Gwang-Seon Ryoo , Dae-Sung Yoo , Woo H. Kim , Won-Il Kim , Choi-Kyu Park , Won-Keun Kim , Ho-Seong Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 293-302 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.293
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the epidemiological trends and challenges in managing tuberculosis (TB) in livestock in Korea from 2013 to 2022. Tuberculosis, caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is a significant zoonotic disease affecting cattle, deer, and other domesticated animals. Despite the initiation of a test-and-slaughter eradication policy in 1964, TB has continued to persist in Korean livestock, particularly in cattle and deer. This study used data from the Korea Animal Health Integrated System and provincial animal health laboratories to analyze TB incidence in various livestock including different cattle breeds and deer species. The results from 2013 to 2022 showed a peak in TB cases in 2019 with a subsequent decline by 2022. The study highlighted a significant incidence of TB in Korean native cattle and the need for amore inclusive approach towards TB testing and control in different cattle breeds. Additionally, the study underscored the importance of addressing TB in other animals such as goats, wildlife, and companion animals for a holistic approach to TB eradication in Korea. The findings suggest that while the test-and-slaughter strategy has been historically effective, there is a need for adaptation to the current challenges, and learning from successful eradiation stories on other countries like Australia. A collaborative effort involving an expanded surveillance system, active private sector participation, and robust government support essential for the efficient eradication of TB in livestock in Korea.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 170 59
    Abstract

    Abstract : Protective efficacy of trivalent Salmonella inactivated vaccine containing Chlorhexidine-inactivated S. Enterltidis (SE), S. Typhimurium (ST), and S. Gallinarum (SG) strains, was evaluated in this study. A total of 70 brown nick layers were divided into 7 groups, A to G, containing 10 hens per group. All hens in groups B to D were intramuscularly immunized with approximately 7×108 cells (3×108 cells of SE+1×108 cells of ST+3×108 cells of SG) of the trivalent vaccine in 0.5 mL of PBS. All chickens in groups E to G were injected with sterile PBS. All hens of groups B and E, groups C and F, and groups D and G were orally challenged with approximately 2×109 CFU of wild-type SE, ST, and SG, respectively. Serum IgG titers and CD3+CD4+ T-cells, and CD3+CD8+ T-cells levels of groups B to D significantly higher than those of group A. In addition, all animals in groups A to C, E and F showed no clinical symptoms and survived after the virulent challenges, whereas one chicken in group D died and all chickens in group G died following the challenge. The protection against wild-type SE and ST in liver, spleen, cecum, and cloaca of groups B and C chickens was significant effective as compared with those in groups E and F. These indicate that the trivalent inactivated vaccine can be an effective tool for prevention of Salmonella infections by inducing robustly protective immune responses and cellular immune response in chickens.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 248 64

    Genotypic diversity and prevalence of Porcine circoviruses for slaughter pigs in Korea

    Bo-Mi Moon , Keum-Sook Chu , Seung-Chai Kim , Hwan-Ju Kim , Da-Jeong Kim , Won-Il Kim

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 315-324 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.315
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study was carried out to investigate the genotypic diversity of PCV2 and co-infection of PCV3 in the hilar lymph nodes of 700 randomly-selected slaughter pigs. Fourteen samples per each farm were obtained from 50 farms between February and August in 2022. Of the 50 farms, 44 farms that had been positive for PCV2 by RT-PCR were genotyped. As a result of PCV2 genotyping, positive rate of PCV2 DNA was 62.3% (436/700). Among the PCV2 DNA-positive samples, positive rate of a single PCV2 genotype was 79.1% (345/436), while multiple PCV2 genotypes were only detected in 20.9% (91/436). Of the 436 single infection cases, PCV2d genotype was most prevalent. Positive rates of PCV2 and PCV3 were 53.6% and 26.0% at the sample level, 5.1% and 8.0% at the farm level, respectively. And the co-positive rate of two viruses was 8.7% (61/700) at the sample level, 62.0% (31/50) at the farm level. These results demonstrate that PCV2 prevalence in slaughter pigs is very high and co-infection between different PCV2 genotypes and between PCV2 and PCV3 is relatively common. Therefore, genetic diversity and co-infection between other porcine circoviruses should be consistently monitored in the future.

  • Original ArticleDecember 30, 2023

    0 223 62

    Prevalence of antibody and toxin against edema disease from pig farms in Jeonbuk province

    Sun-Young Cho , Jeong Hee Yu , Yeong Ju Yu , Han-Jun Lee , Jin Hur

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 325-334 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.325
    Abstract

    Abstract : Edema disease (ED) in pigs is enterotoxemia caused by Shiga toxin type 2e (Stx2e)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and frequently occurs in young piglets. Therefore, ED causes enormous economic losses in pig farms. In this study, a modified Stx2e (mStx2e) antigen was expressed and purified using commercial E. coli expression system. Monoclonal antibody was serviced by Ynto Ab Inc., using Phage Display Technique. Anti-Stx2e antibodies in piglets were measured by indirect ELISA using mStx2e antigens. Naive Stx2e in piglets were detected by Sandwich ELISA using Stx2e-monoclonal antibodies and commercial Stx2e-polyclonal antibodies. Among 3,480 piglets, anti-Stx2e antibodies were observed in 2,573 piglets. The 49.4% among 830 piglet serum samples possessed 0.625 μg/mL or more of Stx2e proteins. The 18.3% of 830 sera had 0.313 μg/mL of Stx2e proteins. The 32.3% of 830 samples held 0.156 μg/mL or less of Stx2e proteins. These results show that indirect ELISA using mStx2e antigen and Sandwich ELISA using Stx2e-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies can be useful to detect ED in piglets.

  • Short CommunicationDecember 30, 2023

    0 151 63

    Sustained SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in domestic pets: Insights from a longitudinal study

    Yeonsu Oh , Dongseob Tark , Choi-Kyu Park , Ho-Seong Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 335-338 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.335
    Abstract

    Abstract : The COVID-19 pandemic, triggered by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has not only impacted human health on a global scale but also raised concerns about the vulnerability of a wide array of animals that are in close contact with humans. Particularly, the potential for infection and the subsequent immune response in domestic pets such as dogs and cats remain largely unexplored under natural living conditions. In this study, we have undertaken the task of detecting and tracking the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a small cohort of household pets-specifically, two dogs and two cats. Employing techniques such as the indirect ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization tests, we observed that the neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in these animals were maintained for a duration of up to six months following their initial positive test result. This duration mirrors the antibody response documented in human cases of COVID-19, suggesting a comparable post-infection immune response timeline between humans and these domestic animals.

  • Short CommunicationDecember 30, 2023

    0 181 56

    The first outbreak of lumpy skin disease in Jeollabuk-do, Korea

    Keum Sook Chu , Woo Ri Jung , Seung Hyuk Yang , Myung Chan Lee , Ku Rye Shon

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(4): 339-348 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2023.46.4.339
    Abstract

    Abstract : The outbreak of lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by LSD virus (LSDV), in Jeollabuk-do was first confirmed at a Korean cattle farm in Buan-gun on October 24, 2023. Afterwards, thirteen cases (twelve cases in Gochang-gun and a case in Imsil-gun) were further confirmed, resulting in a total of fourteen cases over 25 days until November 17, 2023. Clinical examination were conducted on infected and co-habitting cattle from the LSD-affected farms with particular focus on the presence of nodules throughout the body such as head, neck, chest, femur, head, and perineum. As a results, abnormal clinical signs were observed in fifteen cows: loss of appetite in six cows, high fever in three cows, eye mucosal nodules in a cow, nasal mucosal nodules in six cows, nodules on perineum in five cows, scrotum nodules in two cows, papillary nodules in a cow, and/or skin nodules in eleven cows. By the PCR methods, the common gene of capripox virus and/or the specific gene of LSDV were detected in 35 of the 69 cows tested this study. In the Farm1, capripox virus-specific gene, LSDV wild strain-specific gene, and LSDV vaccine strain-spcific gene were simultaneously detected in affected cows, indicating the cattle farm was affected by various strain of LSDV. As a result of combining clincal examination and PCR test, it was found that clinically and subclinically infeted cows coexist in the LSDV-infected farms. These finding in this study will be a great help in diagnosis and prevention of the LSD in Korean cattle farms.

KJVS
Mar 30, 2024 Vol.47 No.1, pp. 1~7

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