Vol.45 No.4, December 30, 2022
Abstract : Giardiasis is widespread all over the world, and it is a disease that causes both acute and chronic digestive symptoms. It is zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans. There are few studies on giardiasis in stray cats due to difficulties in catching and sampling. Therefore, this study evaluated the prevalence of giardiasis in stray cats in the Daejeon city because of increasing interest as zoonotic disease. The specimens were the feces of stray cats captured for the neutering project (TNR) in Daejeon; 30 fecal samples were collected from 2021 to 2022 in each of 5 districts in Daejeon. A total of 150 samples were collected. All samples were tested for giardiasis using the Giardia SNAP kit (SNAPⓇ test, IDEXX Laboratories. Inc., Westbrook, ME). The overall prevalence rate was 46 out of 150 cats (30.7%). By age, 25 out of 71 juvenile cats (35.2%) were positive, and 21 out of 79 adult cats (26.6%) were positive. A total of 19 out of 69 cats (27.5%) with diarrhea were positive, and 27 out of 81 asymptomatic cats (33.3%) were positive. For gender, 38 out of 99 females (38.4%) were positive, and 8 out of 51 males (15.7%) were positive. The positive rate of giardiasis in stray cats was over 30%, which is high compared to other research results. It is necessary to increase the public’s awareness of the value of deworming stray cats and the sanitation of people who have come into contact with them.
Abstract : The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) can provide useful solutions to animal infectious diseases and their impact on humans. The advent of AI learning algorithms and recognition technologies is especially advantageous in applied studies, including the detection, analysis, impact assessment, simulation, and prediction of environmental impacts on malignant animal epidemics. To this end, this study specifically focused on environmental pollution and animal diseases. While the number of related studies is rapidly increasing, the research trends, evolution, and collaboration in this field are not yet well-established. We analyzed the bibliographic data of 1191 articles on AI applications to environmental pollution and animal diseases during the period of 2000∼2019; these articles were collected from the Web of Science (WoS). The results revealed that PR China and the United States are the leaders in research production, impact, and collaboration. Finally, we provided research directions and practical implications for the incorporation of AI applications to address environmental impacts on animal diseases.
Abstract : The current study examined the impact of fermented barley sprout extract prepared using lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp.) in decreasing odor and increasing livestock productivity and measured the difference in the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract after fermentation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of fermented barley sprout extract was evaluated through order level and production index of livestock by supplying it to a broiler house. The results showed that with fermented barley sprout extract, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents were increased significantly by 174% and 562%, respectively. When the extract was applied as an additive to drinking water in the test farm, the productivity improved by about 10%, the mortality rate was reduced by about 66%, and there was a significant decrease in odor by about 80%. Compared with the control group, the production index increased by about 21%, the feed requirement decreased by about 8%, the odor showed a decrease in the NH3 level, and no other gas was detected. It was observed that lactic acid bacteria settle in the intestine, suppress the proliferation of bacteria that cause diarrhea and enteritis, and help digestion. The lactic acid bacteria effectively remove bad odor gases such as NH3, Amines, H2S and CH4S. Such odor reduction improves productivity. Our findings provide valuable information for quality water supply, production optimization and livestock management.
Abstract : Blood type in dogs is based on the antigen present on the red blood cell surface. Dog erythrocyte antigen 1 is a crucial red blood cell antigen in dogs, whereas the dog erythrocyte antigen 7 has been studied in limited dog breeds worldwide. To assess the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens 1 and 7 in 11 breeds in the Republic of Korea, 624 dog blood samples were examined for antigen detection. Overall, 520 dogs (83.3%) showed dog erythrocyte antigen 1 expression. The distribution varied from 50.0∼100.0% according to the breed. Dog erythrocyte antigen 1-positive blood type was the highest in Chihuahua (100%), followed by Jindo dog (98.5%), and Sapsaree (95.3%). Dog erythrocyte antigen 7 was positive in 125 dogs (20.0%), and the positivity varied from 5.0∼42.9% according to the breed. Dog erythrocyte antigen 7-positive blood type was the highest in Beagle (42.9%), followed by Chihuahua (37.5%), and Jindo dog (27.8%). The high prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1 is because of the high proportion of Jindo dog and Sapsaree breeds that were mostly positive for the antigen. The high abundance of these breeds could be due to inbreeding and local breeding in the Republic of Korea. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to report on the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens 1 and 7 among various canine breeds in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence data obtained from this study may contribute to baseline information on veterinary transfusion medicine in small animal practice.
Abstract : Salmonella is a pathogenic bacterium that has long been important industrially because it has a wide host range and can be transmitted to humans through direct contact as well as indirect contact such as food contaminated with animal waste. Understanding how to reduce Salmonella contamination in pig farms is important for public health and the livestock industry from an economic perspective. In the swine industry, high concentrations of disinfectants have been applied because it is difficult to effectively control Salmonella in environments contaminated with organic substances. In order to evaluate the synergetic effect of disinfectants, the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants diluted in hard water and microbubble water (MBW) were compared under the laboratory condition. Different concentrations of both disinfectants combined with 1% detergent diluted in the two diluents were evaluated for their antibacterial effect. In the case of monopersulfate-based disinfectant groups, the growth of Salmonella was not observed at 1:200 dilution with both the hard water and MBW combined with 1% detergent. In the case of citric acid-based disinfectant, the bacterial growth was not observed at 1:800 dilution with MBW combined with 1% detergent. Our results show that the use of MBW as a diluent might improve the biological activities of acid-based disinfectant.
Abstract : Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause contagious diseases and have the potential to infect not only birds but also mammals. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of AIVs and spread them worldwide while migrating. Here we collected active AIV surveillance data from wild bird habitats during the 2019 to 2022 winter seasons (from September to March of the following year) in South Korea. We isolated 97 AIVs from a total of 7,590 fecal samples and found the yearly prevalence of AIVs was 0.83, 1.48, and 1.27, respectively. The prevalence of AIVs were generally higher from September to November. These findings demonstrate that a high number of wild birds that carry AIVs migrate into South Korea during the autumn season. The highest virus numbers were isolated from the species Anas platyrhynchos (72%; n=70), followed by Anas poecilorhyncha (15.4%; n=15), suggesting that each is an important host for these pathogens. Twenty-five hemagglutinin-neuraminidase subtypes were isolated, and all AIVs except the H5N8 subtype were found to be low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). Active surveillance of AIVs in wild birds could benefit public health because it could help to estimate their risk for introduction into animals and humans. Moreover, considering that 132 cases of human AIV infections have been reported worldwide within the last 5 years, active surveillance of AIVs is necessary to avoid outbreaks.
Abstract : Among several diseases of calves, diarrhea is the most prevalent disease and has been a major cause of economic loss to the cattle industry. The main etiologic agents of diarrhea in calves are bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, but non-infectious factors including foreign bodies obstruction in the digestive system also focused as the cause of calf diarrhea in the recent days. Because there is still limited information for foreign body-related diarrhea in calves, especially in Hanwoo, the present retrospective study reviewed the medical records for diarrheic calves with foreign body in the digestive system (n=32). The morbidity was determined as 3.03% and more than half of them presented the acidosis, hyponatremia, and azotemia. The mortality in laparotomy-operated calves to remove foreign bodies or in non-operated ones was 28% or 85.7%, respectively, implied the importance of aggressive decision for laparotomy when the foreign bodies were determined in the digestive system in diarrheic calves. During laparotomy, trichobezoars (hair balls) and hays were the main foreign bodies and prevalently placed in the abomasum. In the trials to predict prognosis by several clinical factors, the time for laparotomy over 2 days after first diagnosis, acidosis, and foreign body in the abomasum were highly associated with mortality. Therefore, we believe that prompt surgical procedure (laparotomy) is necessary upon obstruction in the digestive system by foreign bodies is tentatively diagnosed in the diarrheic calf. In addition, when differential diagnosis list is made, foreign body-related diarrhea is necessary to be included in case of diarrheic calf.
Abstract : Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma (M.) felis, and Chlamydia (C.) felis are considered as main bacterial pathogens of feline upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). In this study, a new triplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (tqPCR) assay was developed for the rapid and differential detection of these bacteria in a single reaction. The assay specifically amplified three bacterial genes with the detection limit of below 10 copies/reaction. The assay showed high repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of intra-assay and inter-assay variation of less than 1%. Based on the diagnostic results of the assay using 94 clinical samples obtained from cats with URTD signs, prevalence of B. bronchiseptica, M. felis, or C. felis was 10.6%, 36.2%, or 6.4%, respectively, indicating that the diagnostic sensitivity was comparable to those of previously reported monoplex qPCR assays. The dual infection rates for B. bronchiseptica and M. felis or M. felis and C. felis was 2.1% or 3.2%, respectively. These results indicated that M. felis has been widely spread, and its co-infection with B. bronchiseptica or M. felis has been frequently occurred in Korean cat population. The developed tqPCR assay will serve as a promising tool for etiological and epidemiological studies of these three bacterial pathogens and the prevalence data obtained in this study will contribute to expanding knowledge about the epidemiology of feline URTD in Korea.
Abstract : Dirofilariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic infection that mainly causes symptoms such as chronic cough, respiratory distress, abnormal breath sounds, heart valve dysfunction, right heart hypertrophy, liver congestion and cirrhosis, ascites, and pleural effusion in dogs. In this study, from June to September 2021, we collected and identified mosquitoes in parks where citizens often take their dogs for a walk, and created pools from them by month, species, and location. These pools were checked for the infection of Dirofilaria immitis by PCR and the minimum infection rates (MIRs) were calculated. The MIR of all mosquitoes collected was 6.4, and the MIRs of mosquitoes from Daewangam Park, Yeocheoncheon Walk, Taehwagang National Garden, and Sinbulsan County Park were 9.7, 4.7, 2.1, and 0, respectively. It also confirmed that Aedes hatorii, Aedes vexans nipponii, and Ochlerotatus koreicus were major vectors of heartworm in Ulsan. Our results suggest that heartworm prophylaxis should be considered in Ulsan.
Myeong-Gon Kang , Dong-Hyun Han , Sei-Myoung Han , Eun-Gyeom Jung , Gyeong-Min Kim , Shin-Ho Lee , Yoon-Joo Shin , Ju-Bin Kang , Dong-Bin Lee , Phil-Ok Koh , Jae-Hyeon Cho , Chung-Kil Won , Chung-Hui KimKorean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(4): 325-330 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.4.325
Abstract : Distichiasis is one of the diseases commonly encountered in companion animals, and these abnormal eyelashes cause corneal ulcers, continuous eye irritation, eye pain, glare, epiphora, foreign body sensation and can cause corneal opacity and vision loss in severe cases. In this study, an eyelash epilation needle for animals was developed and applied to a real case, and the results were observed. In a case of corneal ulcer caused by distichiasis of a 2-year-old Shih Tzu, a high-frequency surgical instrument for animals was converted into an electric epilation needle to attempt a procedure to destroy the eyelash hair follicles on the upper eyelid. A epilation needle was developed to have a diameter of 0.1 mm and a length of 4 mm at the end of the handle of DOCTANZ 400, an electrosurgical instrument for animals only. In the procedure, 2~3 mm of an epilation needle was inserted into the hair follicle, and 1 watt of electric power was applied to the hair follicle for about 5 sec. to carry out electrolysis until white bubbles were generated around the meibomian glands thereby destroying the hair follicle. As a result, no eyelashes grew any longer in the treated area indicating that the treatment was successful. It is hoped that the method developed in this study will be applied so that it will be widely used as a treatment method for distichiasis in companion animals that can be frequently seen hereafter.
Abstract : A yellow-billed spoonbill kept at the zoo was found dead. As a result of the necropsy, the stomach (gizzard and proventriculus) and duodenum were full of undigested fish bones, and the undigested sharp fish bones were lodged in the gastric mucosa and clumped together, blocking the lumen. Thereafter, the intestinal wall was perforated and peritonitis occurred causing death. The cause of the fish spines becoming lodged in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. It can only be assumed that there was a lack of a mechanism for the yellow-billed spoonbill in a zoo to go around and pick up grit or small stones and assist in mechanical crushing in the gizzard.
Abstract : Calf diarrhea is a major health concern in the livestock industry that requires accurate analysis for appropriate treatment. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance are the most significant consequences of diarrhea in calves. Until now, the reference values of blood analysis of Hanwoo neonatal calves have not been well known. Recently, portable blood analyzers have made it possible to immediately analyze blood in the farm and provide suitable treatment for the patients. We analyzed electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose in the blood of 179 Hanwoo neonatal calves, including 79 with diarrhea. These 179 calves were divided into 3 groups based on their age. Values of sodium (Na+) and glucose were significantly lower in diarrheic calves (1∼30 days), while potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) values were higher in diarrheic calves (1∼30 days). BUN values, which are closely related to dehydration due to diarrhea, increased in diarrheic calves of all ages. Therefore, these data can be used as reference values for blood analysis and treatment of healthy or diarrheic Hanwoo neonatal calves within 30 days of age.
Sangjin Ahn, Jong-Taek KimKorean J. Vet. Serv. 2022;45: 13-18 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.1.13
Hye-Ryung Kim, Jonghyun Park, Ji-Hoon Park, Jong-Min Kim, Ji-Su Baek, Da-Young Kim, Young S. Lyoo, Choi-Kyu ParkKorean J. Vet. Serv. 2022;45: 1-11 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.1.1