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  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    Remedy effects of dandelion and milk thistle on fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens

    Young-Joon Cho , Jeong-Ran Min , Jeong-Hee Han , Sang-Hee Jeong

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 1-13

    Abstract : Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic disorder found in caged layer hens and causes reduced egg production and sudden death. Dandelion (Taraxacum coreanum, TC) and milk thistle (Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, CJ) are well known wild herbs inhabiting Korean peninsula and presenting antioxidative effects. This study investigated alleviate effects of these herbal mixture (6:4, w/w) composed of dried powder of TC and CJ against fatty liver in laying hens. The herbs mixture 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 or 40.0 g/kg feed was provided via feed admixture for 3 weeks to laying hens having FLHS. FLHS was induced by intramuscular injection of β-estradiol (2 mg/kg bw) 2 times per week for 3 weeks and supply with high caloric feed. Egg production rate was reduced from 76.2% at pre-treatment to 49.4% at 1 week and further decreased according to β-estradiol treatment. Increment of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (T-Chol) and total bilirubin (T-Bil) and decrement of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) with fatty liver were found by the treatment of β-estradiol. Supplementation of TC and CJ mixture via feed admixture recovered the reduction of egg production and attenuated serological changes and gross and pathological lesions of fatty liver with the best amelioration effects at 5 and 10 g TC and CJ mixture per kg feed. In conclusion, TC and CJ mixture attenuates FLHS by means of antioxidative effects. Further mechanistic study is required to explain TC and CJ’s amelioration effects against FLHS in laying hens.

  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    A triplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous and differential detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, and Mycoplasma canis in respiratory diseased dogs

    Gyu-Tae Jeon , Jong-Min Kim , Jeong-Hyun Park , Hye-Ryung Kim , Ji-Su Baek , Hyo-Ji Lee , Yeun-Kyung Shin , Oh-Kyu Kwon , Hae-Eun Kang , Soong-Koo Kim , Jung-Hwa Kim , Young-Hwan Kim , Choi-Kyu Park

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 15-27

    Abstract : Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma (M.) cynos, and M. canis are the major bacterial pathogens that cause canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC). In this study, we developed a triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (tqPCR) assay for the differential detection of these bacteria in a single reaction. The assay specifically amplified three bacterial genes with a detection limit of below 10 copies/reaction. The assay showed high repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of intra- and inter-assay variations of less than 1%. The diagnostic results of the assay using 94 clinical samples from household dogs with CIRDC clinical signs, the prevalence of B. bronchiseptica, M. cynos, and M. canis was 22.3%, 18.1%, and 20.2%, respectively, indicating that the diagnostic sensitivity was comparable to those of previously reported qPCR assays. The dual infection rate of B. bronchiseptica and M. cynos, B. bronchiseptica and M. canis, and M. cynos and M. canis was 5.3%, 7.4%, and 3.1%, respectively. Moreover, the triple infection rate of B. bronchiseptica, M. cynos, and M. canis was 2.1%. These results indicate that coinfections with B. bronchiseptica, M. cynos, and M. canis have frequently occurred in the Korean dog population. The newly developed tqPCR assay in the present study will be a useful tool for etiological and epidemiological studies on these three CIRDC-associated bacterial pathogens. The prevalence and coinfection data revealed through this study will contribute to expanding knowledge on the epidemiology of CIRDC in the recent Korean dog population.

  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    Effect of culture-promoting ingredients (CPI-107) on the culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Seung Cheol Kim , Sezim Monoldorova , Bo-Young Jeon

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 29-34

    Abstract : Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis complex) is a causative agent of contagious chronic disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts, mainly cattle, goat, pigs, wildlife, and humans. The definite diagnosis of tuberculosis is made based on culture of M. tuberculosis, but it takes a long time. In the present study, we analyzed whether the detection time of M. tuberculosis could be reduced when cultured in the medium containing the culture-promoting ingredients-107 (CPI-107) using the BacT/Alert 3D system, an automatic culture system. The time to detection (TTD) tended to decrease as the added concentration of CPI-107 increase. In the case of low numbers of M. tuberculosis, it decreased by 21.0% at 1.2 mg/mL of CPI-107 and by 15.9% in the case of high numbers of M. tuberculosis. In the culture using clinically isolated M. tuberculosis strains, the shortening of the culture time by CPI was more evident. In conclusion, the detection time of M. tuberculosis was shortened in the medium added with CPI-107, and this could be used for isolation, culture and drug susceptibility test of M. tuberculosis.

  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from fecal samples of piglets

    Hyun Sook Shin , Keun-Ho Kim , Jin Sung Seo , Young Wook Kim , Suk-Kyung Lim , Byeong Yeal Jung

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 35-45

    Abstract : Pathogenic Escherichia coli is the cause of a wide range of diseases in pigs, including diarrhea, edema disease, and septicemia. Diarrhea caused E. coli may result in significant economic losses, making pathogenic E. coli an important pathogen for the swine industry. This study investigated the prevalence of virulence factor genes, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and resistance genes in E. coli isolated from feces of piglets in Korea between 2017 and 2020. As a result, 119 pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained from 601 fecal samples. The F4 adhesin gene and the STb enterotoxin gene were commonly present in E. coli isolated from diarrhea samples. The dominant virulotypes of isolates from diarrhea samples were STb, Stx2e, and F4:LT:STb. More than 80% of the screened isolates were resistant to ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, chloramphenicol, or tetracycline. To confirm the resistance mechanisms for β-lactam or quinolone, we investigated the genotypic factors of resistance. Each of the ceftiofur-resistant E. coli produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoded by blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-27, and blaCTX-M-55. And all ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli harbored mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining-regions. In addition, some of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli contained the plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance genes such as qepA, qnrB1, or qnrD. This study has confirmed that the F4 fimbria and the STb enterotoxin are the most predominant in pathogenic E. coli isolated from piglets with diarrhea in Korea and there is a great need for responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials to treat colibacillosis.

  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    Analysis of prevalence and risk factors of calf diarrhea using rapid diagnosis kit

    Taemook Park , Gil Jae Cho , Young Jin Yang , Il-Sun Ryu

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 47-58

    Abstract : Between February 2020 and September 2021, 378 calves with diarrhea were investigated across 96 cattle breeding farms in Korea, using a rapid diagnostic kit. The study examined the infection rates of major pathogens causing diarrhea in calves, which were categorized by season, age, birth month, and region. Additionally, logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors affecting the infection rate. The study found that the five representative pathogens causing calf diarrhea exhibited differences in infection rates based on season, region, age, and birth month. Bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia commonly exhibited varying risks of infection based on season and age. Furthermore, in addition to these risk factors, bovine rotavirus and Cryptosporidium were found to impact the infection risk of each pathogen by region, while Giardia was found to be affected by birth month.

  • Original Article 2023-03-30

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    The prevalence of viral diseases in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea

    Cheol-Ho Kim , Yongwoo Son , Yu-Jeong Choi , Byeong Hyo Ko , Weon Hwa Kang , Gyeong Ae Kim , Seungyun Lee , Woo Hyun Kim

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 59-66

    Abstract : Wild boar is closely related to domestic pigs in terms of genetic homogeneity and the possibility of a source of infection by contact. This study investigated the prevalence of viral diseases from wild boars inhabiting Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. A total of 374 blood samples were collected and subjected to antigen tests to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV), Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). For seroprevalence, PCV2, PRRS, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujezsky’s disease (ADV), and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) were investigated. The antigenic analysis revealed 73 positive cases (19.5%) for PCV2, while no positive cases for ASFV and PRRSV. For the antibody test, 225 (60.2%), 2 (0.5%), and 48 (12.8%) cases were detected against PCV2, PRRSV, and CSFV, respectively. There were no antibodies detected against both ADV and FMDV. Our results suggest that the viruses infecting both wild boar and domestic pig, mainly PCV2, are circulating in the wild boar population thus, the consistent monitoring of prevalence in wild boar will be needed for transboundary spillover to the domestic pig.

  • Short Communication 2023-03-30

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    Incidence of bovine tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) and dairy cow in Gyeonsangnam-do province from 2020 to 2022

    Cheol-Ho Kim , Yoo-Jeong Choi , Shin-Ho Lee , Dong-Hyun Han , Yoon-Ho Roh , Dong-Bin Lee , Jae-Hyeon Cho , Chung-Hui Kim

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 67-74

    Abstract : In the present study, the incidence of bovine tubeculosis (bTB) and brucellosis in Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) and dairy cow in Gyeongsangnam-do was investigated for three years from 2020 to 2022. The incidence bTB tested by tuberculin skin test with purified protein derivative (PPD) and gamma interferon (γ-INF) test with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. From 2020 to 2022, the incidence of bTB showed a decreasing trend in Hanwoo, while an increasing trend in dairy cow. In the case of Brucellosis, the positive rates for Hanwooe gradually increased. However, no brucellosis was found in dairy cow from 2020 to 2022. The increase in the incidence of these diseases is presumed to be related the small scale and poor sanitation facilities of livestock farms in Gyeongsangnam-do, and easy access of wild animals. Therefore, in order to suppress the incidence of the diseases, it is necessary to the farm scale from small to large and to strengthen sanitary facilities on farms.

  • Case Report 2023-03-30

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    The medical management of mitral stenosis in a Bull Terrier

    Kun Ho Song , Aleksandra Domanjko Petrič

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 75-79

    Abstract : An eight-year-old, 28-kg male bull terrier who showed signs of lethargy and cough was referred for further evaluation of congestive heart failure. On presentation, physical examination revealed a systolic murmur at the left apex of the heart. Moreover, chest radiograph evaluation confirmed the mild alveolar and interstitial patterns in the caudal lung lobes and a grossly enlarged left atrium and left ventricle. Electrocardiography showed atrial fibrillation with a wide QRS complex, and transthoracic echocardiography revealed marked enlargement of the left atrium with abnormal morphology of the mitral valve. The thickened, hammer-like appearance and abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve leaflets were characterized by decreased leaflet separation and doming of the valve. The diagnosis was mitral stenosis with congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The owner declined interventional valvuloplasty. Medical treatment included furosemide, pimobendan and diltiazem. Regular health check-ups have shown that vitality and clinical signs have improved considerably, and the dog have remained stable for 6 months after the presentation.

  • Case Report 2023-03-30

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    Incidental finding of hemolymph nodes in a Holstein cow (Bos taurus taurus) with coccidiosis

    Ho-Seong Cho , Sang-Joon Lee , Yunchan Lee , Yeonsu Oh

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 81-85

    Abstract : This case report is about hemolymph nodes found in a dairy cow whose function is still not fully elucidated. A 4-month Holstein cow presented severe respiratory symptoms and hematochezia for a while with respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Coccidiosis was diagnosed and treated immediately, but the cow died from respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. At necropsy, no abnormal appearance in thoracic and peritoneal organs was observed, but hemolymph nodes were observed being multifocally stuck on omasum serosa and the subcutaneous fascia of abdominal region, and the larger dark red lymph nodes were found along the omasum great curvature. Microscopically, lymphoid depletion and lymphadenitis in the lymph nodes were examined to point systemic infection, and in the hemolymph node, multifocally demarcated pale lesions with macrophage infiltration and fibrin deposition nearby subcapsular sinus. In subcapsular sinus of the hemolymph node, rod to linear gram-negative bacteria were found. Through this study, we might conclude that the hemolymph node is involved in pathogen phagocytosis.

  • Case Report 2023-03-30

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    Diagnosis and treatment of the odontoid process fracture of the axis in a dog

    Hyoung Joon Park , ShinHo Lee , Chung Hui Kim , ChungKil Won , Jae-Hyeon Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 87-92

    Abstract : A 7-year-old dog weighing 3.9 kg visited the hospital with symptoms of inability to stand and quadriparesis. There were seizure symptoms 2 months before admission to the hospital, and the symptoms of stiffness and rigidity appeared. Radiographs showed normal vertebrae in cervical vertebral column. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed immediately to diagnose vertebral lameness. As a result of the CT, it was possible to observe the fracture of the odontoid process of the axis, and the exact location of the damage was identified. The odontoid process was fractured and separated from the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra (axis), and fragment of the process was observed inside the vertebral arch of the first cervical vertebra (atlas), and the body of the axis was lifted to the dorsal side. The MRI examination reflected the CT findings and confirmed severe spinal cord compression due to the fracture of the odontoid process. The patient was applied by neck brace and medical management including Mycophenolate mofetil administration was performed. The patient was able to move legs and tail after 2 weeks, and was able to voluntarily defecate, urinate and stand up after 4 weeks of administration.

  • Review Article 2023-03-30

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    Genomic epidemiology and surveillance of zoonotic viruses using targeted next-generation sequencing

    Seonghyeon Lee , Seung-Hwan Baek , Shivani Rajoriya , Sara Puspareni , Won-Keun Kim

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2023; 46(1): 93-106

    Abstract : Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viruses become critical public health, economic, societal, and cultural burdens. The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic reveals needs for effective preparedness and responsiveness against the emergence of variants and the next virus outbreak. The targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) significantly contributes to the acquisition of viral genome sequences directly from clinical specimens. Using this advanced NGS technology, the genomic epidemiology and surveillance play a critical role in identifying of infectious source and origin, tracking of transmission chains and virus evolution, and characterizing the virulence and developing of vaccines during the outbreak. In this review, we highlight the platforms and preparation of targeted NGS for the viral genomics. We also demonstrate the application of this strategy to take advantage of the responsiveness and prevention of emerging zoonotic viruses. This article provides broad and deep insights into the preparedness and responsiveness for the next zoonotic virus outbreak.

Mar 30, 2023 Vol.46 No.1, pp. 1~92

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