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  • Original Article 2022-06-30

    0 106 23

    Clinical characterization of 3-month-old pigs infected with African swine fever virus from Vietnam

    Sang-Ik Oh , Vuong Nghia Bui , Duy Tung Dao , Ngoc Anh Bui , Seung-Won Yi , Eunju Kim , Han Gyu Lee , Eun-Yeong Bok , S.H.M.P Wimalasena , Young-Hun Jung , Tai-Young Hur , Hu Suk Lee

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 71-77

    Abstract : African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal viral disease in pigs, with a short incubation period and causing immediate death. Few studies exist on the Asian epidemic ASF virus (ASFV) challenge in older pigs, including growing and fattening pigs and sows. We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes, pathomorphological lesions, and viral distribution in organs of 3-month-old growing pigs that were inoculated with the ASFV isolated in Vietnam. The clinical outcomes were recorded daily, and the dead or euthanized pigs immediately underwent necropsy. Viral loads were determined in 10 major organs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The average incubation period in growing pigs was more delayed (5.2±0.9 dpi) than that in weaned pigs, and the clinical signs were milder in growing pigs than in weaned pigs. The digestive and respiratory clinical signs in growing pigs showed at the end period of life, but these were observed at an early stage of infection in weaned pigs. The pathomorphological features were severe and nonspecific with hemorrhagic lesions in various organs. The viral loads in organs from growing pigs were higher than those from piglets, and the number of viral copies was related to gross lesions in the tonsil and intestine. In the absence of vaccines against ASF, early clinical detection is important for preventing the spread of the virus. Our findings elucidated that the clinical signs and gross lesions in growing pigs differed from those in weaned pigs, which provide valuable information for diagnosis of pigs with suspected ASF infection.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

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    Investigation on the asymptomatic endometriosis of Korean indigenous cow in Gyeongsangnam-do

    Jae-Hyeon Cho , Cheol-Ho Kim , Taeg-Seog Kim , Ju-Bin Kang , Dong-Hyun Han , Phil-Ok Koh , Chung-Kil Won , Chung-Hui Kim

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 79-86

    Abstract : Reproductive disorders in cows cause economic loss in livestock farms. This study was carried out to investigate the incidence of endometriosis in the uterine of Korean indigenous cow (Hanwoo). In the present study, the uterine of 25 cows was provided by the slaughterhouse. As a result on a visual examination of the uterus, 18 out of 25 were visually normal, and 7 uteruses (28%) appeared rather pale and showed purulent or mucosal symptoms in Uterine horn. However, the results of hematological analysis showed that both RBC and WBC were normal and showed no signs of systemic inflammation, indicating 7 cows showed asymptomatic endometriosis. The inflammatory uterus (28%) showed a wide range of pathological conditions that elicit an inflammatory response, such as serous exudate and bleeding. Histological and microscopic analysis in the inflammatory group demonstrated that there was swelling of the uterine glands, and neutrophil, basophil, and lymphocyte appeared in the uterine gland. Moreover, plasma cells and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were increased in the endometrial stroma, which lead to inhibit pregnancy by suppression of the synthesis of pregnancy hormones, and the appearance of hemosiderin-laden macrophages is an indicator of intracellular bleeding. In summary, hematologically, it is a normal diagnosis in Korean indigenous cows, however, when the uterus was extracted and investigated microscopically, the asymptomatic endometriosis were evident. In order to achieve the goal of healthy cow management and breeding within 2 weeks after birth, cows’ uterus should be washed, disinfected, and through thorough the hygiene management, it aims to prevent asymptomatic endometriosis to produce healthy offspring and reduce the breeding interval.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

    0 89 20

    Prevalence and co-infection status of three pathogenic porcine circoviruses (PCV2, PCV3, and PCV4) by a newly established triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay

    Hye-Ryung Kim , Jonghyun Park , Won-Il Kim , Young S. Lyoo , Choi-Kyu Park

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 87-99

    Abstract : A novel porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4) was recently emerged in Chinese and Korean pig herds, which provided epidemiological situation where three pathogenic PCVs, PCV2, PCV3, and newly emerged PCV4, could co-infect pig herds in these countries. In this study, a new triplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (tqPCR) method was developed for the rapid and differential detection of these viruses. The assay specifically amplified each viral capsid gene, whereas no other porcine pathogenic genes were detected. The detection limit of the assay was below 10 copies/μL and the assay showed high repeatability and reproducibility. In the clinical evaluation using 1476 clinical samples from 198 Korean pig farms, the detection rates of PCV2, PCV3 and PCV4 by the tqPCR assay were 13.8%, 25.4%, and 3.8%, respectively, which were 100% agreement with those of previously reported monoplex qPCR assays for PCV2, PCV3, and PCV4, with a κ value (95% CI) of 1 (1.00∼1.00). The prevalence of PCV2, PCV3, and PCV4 at the farm levels were 46.5%, 63.6%, and 19.7%, respectively. The co-infection analysis for tested pig farms showed that single infection rates for PCV2, PCV3, and PCV4 were 28.8%, 44.4%, and 9.6%, respectively, the dual infection rates of PCV2 and PCV3, PCV2 and PCV4, and PCV3 and PCV4 were 12.6%, 3.5%, and 5.1%, respectively, and the triple infection rate for PCV2, PCV3, and PCV4 was 1.5%. These results demonstrate that three pathogenic PCVs are widely spread, and their co-infections are common in Korean pig herds, and the newly developed tqPCR assay will be useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of these pathogenic PCVs.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

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    Epidemiologic investigation of gastrointestinal pathogens for Korean cats with digestive sign

    Mi-Jin Lee , Fujin An , Gijong Lee , Jin-ho Park

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 101-110

    Abstract : This study was performed to investigate infectious gastrointestinal diseases in 115 Korean cats (83 indoors and 32 outdoors) with digestive signs such as diarrhea, anorexia or abdominal distention. Detection of infectious pathogens was analyzed using real-time PCR. As a result, 85 of 115 Korean cats were detected with feline corona virus (FCoV), feline parvo virus, Group A rotavirus, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), Campylobacter coli (C. coli), Campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Tritrichomonas foetus, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Giardia lamblia. The most frequently detected pathogen was C. perfringens (52 cats, 61.2%), followed by FCoV (43 cats, 50.6%) and C. coli (16 cats, 18.8%). Also, single infection was the most common (43 cats), followed by double infection in 31 cats, triple infection in 7 cats, and quadruple infection in 4 cats. There was no significant relationship between pathogen detection and age, gender, living environment, weather, and diarrhea. However, there was a significant difference between the age group under 1 year and the age group 1∼7 (P value<0.05). In this study, cats with suspected gastrointestinal infection were randomly evaluated, and other factors that could affect pathogen detection were insufficiently considered. For this reason, additional epidemiological investigations with a larger number of cats and sufficient consideration of the causes that may affect the results are needed. Nevertheless, it is thought that this study can also provide valuable information on gastrointestinal pathogens in Korean cats.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

    0 81 20

    Odor reduction effect of microbially activated peat in broiler houses

    Gyurae Kim , Sang-Joon Lee , Taeyeon Kim , Krisdianti , Sulhi Aufa , Hyunsook Min , Gyeongchan Go , Ho-Seong Cho , Yeonsu Oh

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 111-116

    Abstract : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reduction effect of microbially activated peat on odor generated by livestock farms. The odor gas was measured by stirring the livestock manure sample with the existing litter and the microbially activated peat (Healtha Peat) was developed by this research team. In outdoor farm experiment, the measurements were performed by comparing broilers farm using rice husks and microbially activated peat as litter. The weight, mortality, shipment date, and odor levels (NH3) were measured before and after experiment. The result showed that NH3 levels were reduced by 100% in the Healtha Peat mixed group, Healtha Peat and rice husks mixed group. In the peat mixed group, Healtha Peat and saw dust mixed group showed reduce value at 99.6% and 99.1%, respectively. However the rice husks mixed group and saw dust mixed group showed a relatively weak NH3 reduction effect with values of 57.5% and 84.8%, respectively. After 3 months, the Healtha Peat mixed group and Healtha Peat and rice husks mixed group showed the highest NH3 reduction effect persistence. In the outdoor farm experiment, NH3 was present in farms using rice husks, but not in farms using Healtha Peat. In farms using Healtha Peat, the mortality and NH3 were reduced by 75% and >90%, respectively. The average body weight increased 18% and resulted to 10% decrease in the shipping date. These results implied that microbially activated peat has a clear effect on farm NH3 reduction and affects the productivity of farm animals.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

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    Application of chemical treatment for cattle and chicken carcasses for the control of livestock infectious diseases

    Taek Geun Lee , Yeonsu Oh , Young-Seung Ko , Da-Yun Bae , Dong-Seob Tark , Chaekwang Rim , Ho-Seong Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 117-124

    Abstract : In the event of an outbreak of a livestock epidemic, it has been considered that the existing burialcentered carcass disposal method should be improved ecofriendly for prevention of leachate and odors from burial basically in regard of pathogen inactivation. Therefore, the aim of this study is whether it was possible to treat the carcass of cattle and chickens using the chemical carcass treatment method. It was conducted to establish detailed treatment standards for the chemical treatment method of cattle and chicken carcasses based on the results of the proof of the absence of infectious diseases in cattle chickens. After inoculating cattle carcass with 10 pathogens (foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Brucella abortus, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium) and chicken carcasses with low pathogenic avian influenza virus, Clostridium perfringens type C, E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, these were treated at 90°C for 5 hours in a potassium hydroxide liquid solution corresponding to 15% of the body weight. This method liquefies all cadaveric components and inactivates all inoculated pathogens by PCR and culture. Based on these results, it was possible to prove that chemical treatment of cattle and chicken carcasses is effective in killing pathogens and is a safe method without the risk of disease transmission. The chemical treatment method of livestock carcasses can be suggested as an alternative to the current domestic burial-centered livestock carcass treatment method, preventing environmental pollution, and contributing to public health.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

    0 78 18

    Analysis on antibody titer of structural protein after vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus (Type O) in zoo animals

    Hyun-Ho Lee , Kyung-Yeon Eo

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 125-131

    Abstract : The purpose of this study was to examine antibody titers to structural protein (SP) of the foot-andmouth disease (FMD) virus after vaccination in animals of the Seoul zoo. After the initial inoculation of FMD vaccine to the susceptible animals of the zoo, a total of 235 blood samples were collected from 42 species of zoo animals during treatment or necropsy. All samples were tested by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall positive rate of SP antibodies against FMD virus was 94.0% (221/235). However, the positive rates varied according to animal species. The results of positive rates in 30 species were 100% but in 12 species were 50-94.7%. We showed that most animals that have received FMD vaccine in Seoul zoo have been reached to the level of herd immunity against FMD virus after the vaccination. To the best of our knowledge, this study would be the first report for monitoring the vaccine-induced SP antibody titers against FMD virus after vaccination in various zoo animal species in Korea.

  • Original Article 2022-06-30

    0 86 20

    Serological and molecular prevalence of lumpy skin disease virus in Korean water deer, native and dairy cattle in Korea

    Young-Seung Ko , Yeonsu Oh , Taek Geun Lee , Da-Yun Bae , Dongseob Tark , Ho-Seong Cho

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 133-137

    Abstract : Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe cross-border infectious disease that causes fever, skin and visceral nodules in cattle. LSD is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a dsDNA virus that belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus. Although LSD has been found only in Southern Africa traditionally, in the last decade it is spreading very quickly through the Middle East and into Eastern Europe and China. It usually affects cattle and water buffalos being transmitted by blood-feeding insects. As it causes a huge economic impact, LSD is a notifiable disease by World Organisation for Animal Health, and managed as the legal infectious disease class I in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to confirm the existence of LSDV antigens or antibodies in Korean livestock. We collected 1,200 blood samples from cattle (Korean native and dairy cattle) and Korean water deer in 4 major provinces of the country, then tested the existence of LSDV antigen and antibody. None (0.0%) of the 1,200 blood samples were positive for both antigen and antibody of LSDV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the prevalence of LSDV in Korea. Our study aims to report the LSDV occurrence situation obtained by surveillance in Korea and provide information that may help prevention of LSD epidemics.

  • Case Report 2022-06-30

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    Treatment of central diabetes insipidus with anemia in a dog

    Sol Kim , Han Joon Lee , Kyoung Won Seo , Kun-Ho Song

    Korean J. Vet. Serv. 2022; 45(2): 139-143

    Abstract : A 10-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Chungnam National University due to evaluation of sudden polyuria (PU) and, polydipsia (PD) (540 mL/kg/day) with severe anemia and weight loss. Blood examination results were normal except for severe anemia (hematocrit, [HCT]: 11.8%). Urinalysis revealed a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.003, whereas urine sediment was not specific. Urine osmolality was 90 mOsm (reference range: 800∼2500 mOsm), and plasma osmolality was 303 mOsm. No specific lesions were found using diagnostic imaging including radiography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The serum cortisol level was normal in cosyntropin stimulation test. Plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration was <0.4 pg/mL (reference range: 3.49∼5.45 pg/mL). Blood transfusion was initiated in addition to an oral prescription of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP, 0.1 mg/head) thrice a day for one week. The patient was rechecked for clinical signs, urine osmolality, and USG; the clinical signs of PU/PD were resolved, urine osmolality increased to 1106 mOsm, and, USG increased to 1.021. Considering the improved clinical signs, and increased urine osmolality, and USG after DDAVP treatment, the dog was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. USG and urine osmolality increased to >1.030 and 2200 mOsm, respectively. Anemia also gradually improved and HCT increased to >37%. DDAVP was tapered to 0.1 mg/head twice a day and all clinical signs in the patient have completely resolved.

Jun 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.2, pp. 101~99

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