Vol.46 No.3, September 30, 2023
Abstract : Cystatin C, a low-molecular-weight protein synthesized by cells, is being explored as a valuable biomarker for assessing renal function in veterinary medicine. Although the relationship between cystatin C and heart disease remains unclear, some studies suggest a possible association. This retrospective case-control study aimed to investigate the role of cystatin C as a biomarker for heart disease and its correlation with diuretic use in veterinary clinical practice. A total of 39 dogs were included in this study, comprising 9 control dogs without a predisposition to heart disease and 30 dogs in the study group diagnosed with heart disease. Among the 30 dogs with heart disease, 18 exhibited symptoms indicative of heart failure. Results showed significantly higher cystatin C levels in the heart disease group compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were observed among different stages of heart disease severity in the control group. Furthermore, cystatin-C showed statistically positive correlations with BUN (r=0.478, P<0.01), creatinine (r=0.506, P<0.01), and furosemide (r=0.338, P<0.05). Diuretics are essential for managing congestive heart failure, and the observed associations between cystatin C and furosemide suggest potential impacts of diuretic use on renal function in dogs with heart failure. Monitoring renal function markers, such as cystatin C, can aid in predicting and managing potential renal complications, ultimately improving the overall health and quality of life of dogs with heart disease.
Abstract : Porcine epidemic diarrhea is an infectious intestinal disease caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Especially, when suckling piglets are infected, the mortality rate is close to 100%. PEDV is classified into G1 and G2 types based on genetic differences. The G2 type PEDV outbreak in the United States in 2013 was highly pathogenic and contagious, and it has spread worldwide and caused continuous economic losses. Most commercial vaccines used are G1 type vaccines, and existing vaccines do not fully protect piglets due to genetic differences. In this study, we evaluated the safety of the newly developed G2 type attenuated HSGP vaccine strain by inoculating it into piglets and testing whether the vaccine virus spreads to the non-vaccinated, negative pigs and whether the vaccine reverts to its virulence during serial passage experiments. Each experiment lasted for 7 days for each passage, and fecal viral titers, clinical symptoms, and weight gain were measured daily. After the experiment, necropsy was performed to measure intestinal virus titer and pathological evaluation. As a result of the first passage, no transmission of the vaccine virus to negative pigs co-housed with vaccinated pigs was observed. In addition, after four consecutive passage experiments, the clinical symptoms and small intestine lesions were gradually alleviated, and no virus was detected in the feces in the fourth passage experiment. Therefore, it was concluded that the vaccine was safe without virulence reversion in accordance with the guidelines of the current licensing authority. However, further studies are needed on the genetic changes and biological characteristics of the mutant virus that occur during successive passages of the attenuated vaccine since the replication and clinical symptoms of the virus increased until the third passage during successive passages of the vaccine virus. Based on this study, it was concluded that virulence reversion and safety evaluation of attenuated vaccines through serial passage in target animals can be useful to evaluate the safety of attenuated viruses.
Abstract : Breeding ducks are susceptible to fungal infections due to being bred in confined spaces for long periods. The objective of this study was to show the real state of the clinical fungal contamination of 22 duck breeding farms in Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea. Out of the 430 carcasses obtained from the 22 duck breeding farms, 80 were diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Aspergillus spp. were detected as the causative agents, including 26 cases of A. fumigatus, 35 cases of A. flavus, and 19 cases of A. terreus. The clinical lesions in the breeding ducks had circumscribed cream-and-yellow–colored plaques and/or white-to-greenish mycelium. Septate hyphae with parallel walls and dichotomous branching were observed in the histopathological lesions. AGMAg ELISA was performed to determine the overall positive rate of Aspergillus spp. in duck breeding farms. These results showed a positive rate of 58.97% for Aspergillus spp. Additionally, the positive rate increased with the age of the host.
Abstract : This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in duck farms of Jeollanam-do Province, South Korea. A total of 1112 samples (breeder ducks, 286; broiler ducks, 826) were collected from 196 duck farms (breeder duck farms, 25; broiler duck farms, 171) between January 2018 and November 2019. The total prevalence of Salmonella serotypes was 45.4% (89/196) in the duck farms, with no significant difference between prevalence in breeder and broiler duck farms (48% and 45%, respectively; P>0.05). The most prevalent serotype among the 127 Salmonella isolates was Salmonella Typhimurium (20.5%) followed by Salmonella Albany (17.3%), Salmonella Hadar (15.7%), and Salmonella Enteritidis (11.8%). Maximum resistance was observed against penicillin (78.74%), followed by tetracycline (68.50%), and kanamycin (65.35%). Of the 127 isolates, 117 (92.13%) were resistant to ≥3 antimicrobials and 2 to all 18 antimicrobials. Our results demonstrate the presence of Salmonella strains and their resistance to multiple antimicrobials, thus indicating a public health concern in South Korea. The emergence of Salmonella stains that are resistant to multiple drugs highlight the need for careful use of antimicrobials in duck farms.
Abstract : Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has a genetic basis and is primarily a skin disorder characterized by allergic features. It is caused by an excessive immune response, associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE), to allergens and shows clinical signs of itching and inflammation. The present study evaluated the allergen-specific and total IgE concentration in dogs with allergic disorders. Allergen-specific IgE analysis was performed using a Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test (MAST) assay, and total IgE analysis was conducted using an ELISA in 82 dogs with CAD. The subjects were divided into two groups: dogs aged ≤3 years and dogs aged >3 years, enabling a comparison of total IgE concentrations between the two age groups. The results showed that the major affecting environmental allergen was Alternaria alternate, and the major affecting dietary allergen was raw chestnut. The results revealed that dogs aged ≤3 years had higher total IgE concentrations than dogs aged >3 years with significant difference. The results of this study can contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of CAD in South Korea.
Abstract : It has been addressed that heat stress due to high atmospheric temperature during summer in Korea induces impaired release of reproductive hormones, followed by occurring abnormal ovarian cyclicity, lower pregnancy ratio, and reduced litter size. Therefore, the present study attempted to compare seasonal change (spring versus summer) of the ovarian aromatase expression, an enzyme for converting testosterone into estrogen. While serum estrogen level in summer group was significantly lower than that of spring group, testosterone was not different between groups. Consistent with estrogen level, the ovarian aromatase expression in summer at follicular phase was significantly lower than the counterpart of spring. The ovarian aromatase expression was positively related with serum estrogen level significantly (r=0.689; P=0.008) and strongly negative correlation was identified (r=−0.533; P=0.078) with atmospheric temperature. The ovarian aromatase expression was not detected in immature ovarian follicles but specifically localized in the granulosa cell layers in both seasons. However, the aromatase intensity in the granulosa cell layers was stronger in spring than summer. Because testosterone level was not different between groups, it could be concluded that the lower level of estrogen during summer might be derived by not lack of substrate but lower expression of ovarian aromatase by heat stress.
Abstract : Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. In 2021, canine norovirus (CNoV) infection was detected at an animal clinic in Gwangju area, South Korea. A semi-nested polymerase chain reaction was developed to amplify a 478 bp fragment of the RdRp gene of CNoV. The phylogenetic analysis of this fragment confirmed the strain to be genogroup IV.2 (Dog/GIV.2/gw/s377/2021/KOR), which exhibited the highest similarity to the feline NoV strain GIV.2/CU081210E/USA/2010 (accession no. NC_045762) with 95.1% nucleotide (nt) identity and 98.7% amino acid (aa) identity. These research findings indicate that the detected norovirus in dogs is genetically similar to a feline-origin norovirus, suggesting easy cross-species transmission among animals.
Abstract : This study examined the dermatophytes of calves aged between 6 and 12 months in the Hanwoo calf auction market. Moreover, the research analyzed how dermatophytosis affected the auction price of Hanwoo calves based on their sex and age. The incidence rate of dermatophytosis was found to be 85 cases out of 1,955 calves (4.3%). The major location of dermatophytosis lesions were in the head region. Specifically, the highest prevalence was observed in the forehead (42.4%), followed by the eyes (30.1%), and the ears (18.8%). The auction prices of Hanwoo calves were observed that the average price for normal calves was 2,936,428 won, while calves with dermatophytosis were sold at 2,767,059 won. Comparing auction prices according to gender and age, it was observed that male calves and calves aged between 8 and 12 months had significantly lower auction prices compared to normal calves. The results provided valuable insights into the current situation of dermatophytosis in Hanwoo calves. Moreover, analyzing the impact of dermatophytosis on the auction prices of these calves, it has generated essential data that can serve as a foundation for implementing and enhancing ongoing management and prevention measures for dermatophytosis in cattle.
Abstract : A 12-year-old neutered male Maltese was brought to our hospital with loss of appetite, generalized alopecia, anemia, and a palpable abdominal mass. Ultrasonography revealed multiple abdominal masses in the liver and spleen. Subsequently, splenectomy and liver biopsy were performed, and the masses were histologically diagnosed as metastatic fibrosarcomas of unknown primary origin. The owner refused further investigations such as computed tomography and hepatectomy, therefore, we decided to initiate chemotherapy in the form of metronomic therapy with toceranib phosphate, which has several advantages, such as better tolerability, low cost, and convenience. The size and number of hepatic fibrosarcomas continued to increase despite continued administration of toceranib (10 mg/dog, PO, q48h). The dog died approximately 43 days after initiation of the toceranib treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on toceranib therapy for metastatic hepatic fibrosarcoma in a dog.
Daewoong Lim, Ji Yeon Kim, Ahjin An, Jiyeong Park, Hajin Jeong, Jinju Gwak, Doori Seo, Jae Gi Lee, Miseon Jang, Taekyeong Ji, Yonghwan KimKorean J. Vet. Serv. 2022;45: 155-164 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.3.155
Sechul Yo, Hyung-Jin Park, Kun-Ho SongKorean J. Vet. Serv. 2022;45: 165-169 https://doi.org/10.7853/kjvs.2022.45.3.165